1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Dieffenbachia Schott
      1. Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacq.) Schott

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Caribbean to S. Tropical America.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 213 - 2600 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Llanura del Caribe.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Araceae, S.J. Mayo. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Erect to decumbent herb with fleshy green stem to 1 m. tall bearing annular scars.
    Leaves
    Leaves ± rosulate near stem-apex; blade ovate to oblong-ovate, up to 40 cm. long, 15 cm. broad, green, usually variegated with spots and blotches of white or yellow, acuminate, base cuneate to subcordate; petiole usually shorter than blade, green or white-spotted.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence pendent in fruit, peduncle shorter than spathe.
    Spathe
    Spathe up to 20 cm. long, green.
    Spadix
    Spadix adnate on one side to spathe except for free, partially exserted, apical staminate part; sterile appendix lacking.
    Female
    Pistillate flowers each with whorl of 4–5 clavate white staminodes.
    Flowers
    Flowers unisexual, lacking tepals. Pistillate flowers each with whorl of 4–5 clavate white staminodes.
    Distribution
    Native of tropical America and West Indies (‘Dumb cane’). Widely cultivated throughout the world as an ornamental plantmany cultivars exist with different leaf variegationsthe sap is strongly irritant and vesicant.
    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    General Description
    Herb, to 1.5 m tall;s temsr eclining at baset hen erect; internodes 1.7-5 x 1.5-4.0 cm, medium green and glossy soon becoming dark green, semiglossy to almost matte, smooth. LEAVES arching; petioles 10-34.5 cm long, averaging 29.7 cm long, medium green and weakly glossy, rarely white, sometimes densely pale green maculate, sheathed 2/3_85 or more their length, free part of petiole 5-7 cm long, acutely sulcate; sheath 20-28 long, pale green and matte on inside, usually acute on one side, rounded on the other side, sometimes inequilaterally acute on both sides, curved inward along the margins but the sides not contacting, faintly striate throughout but especially noticeable toward the base, the basal portion of the sheath often persisting after much of the petiole falls free; blades ovate-lanceolate, 17-38.5 cm long, 10-20 cm wide (averaging3 2.1 x 17.3 cm), 2.7-3.3 times longer than wide, 1.2-1.6 times longer than petioles, inequilateral, one side 1.5 cm broader, inequilaterally rounded at base or with one side acute the other rounded, subcoriaceous, semiglossy, medium-dark green, sometimes mottled with pale green or white, especially along midrib, moderately paler below; midrib flattened-convex and slightly paler, ca. 6 mm wide above, narrowly rounded and slightly paler below, sometimes darker green-maculate in lower half; primary lateral veins 13 to 15(19) per side, arising to 40°-50° angle, quilted-sunken and con-colorous above, concolorous and concave below; in-terprimarly veins usually present and nearly as conspicuous; as primary lateral veins; minor veins moderately in distinct, arising from the midrib and paralleling the primary lateral veins. I1NFLORESCENCES 1 to 4 per axil, usually solid green but sometimes pale greenish yellow maculate through-out (maculations sometimes appearing in irregular transverse rows on spathe); peduncles 2.5-14 cm long, 7-X x 8-12 mm diam., medium green, weakly glossy, faintly dark green-striate; spathe 11-24 cm long, abruptly acuminate at apex, gradually constricted above tube, in the upper 2/3, medium-dark green and semiglossy to matte outside, slightly paler and glossy within; spathe blade at anthesis stiffly erect then recurving near apex; spathe tube 7-10 cm long, 1.2-1.8 x 2.0-2.5 cm diam.; spadix 10-19 cm long; the naked portion at base 1.5-2.5 cm long; pistillate portion of spadix 4-8.5 cm long; pistils 20 to 25, closely aggregated except in upper 10-12 mm, with up to 3 of them in a loose spiral across the spadix but usually with 1 or 2 at any level on the spadix; ovary bicarpellate, markedly bilobate, rarely 3- or 4-locular (and 3- to 4-lobate, respectively), pale green, semiglossy, 3.2-3.6 x 2.1-2.4 mm; stigmas pale orange, doubled (one for each locule) but usually fused along the adjoining margins, 2.3-4.3 x 2.0-2.4 mm diam.; staminodia 4 per pistil, 2.8-3.1 mm long, 0.8-1.0 mm wide at apex, slightly thickened toward apex, flattened and free at base, the base equally as wide or up to twice as wide as the apex; fertile staminate portion of spadix 5-7.5 cm long, 5-15 mm diam., slightly broader midway, taperings lightly toward both ends, bluntly acute to rounded at apex, at anthesis protruding forward out of spathe and usually being trapped there by the closing spathe; staminate flowers 5 to 6(8?) per spiral, (1.6)2.2-3.5(4) mm diam., squarely rounded to rounded, sometimes broadest perpendicular to the axis, smoothly rounded at apex, sometimes with a transverse linear slit medially; anthers 5 to 6 per synandrium, shedding their pollen well below the rim of the synandrium; the mostly naked portion of spadix2 .0-4.0 cm long, 6-8 mm diam., medium green with 1 pistil in lower 1/3 and with 2 to 3 staminodes in upper1 /2, sometimes with only a few staminodia scattered in upper 3/4. Berries bright red or orange.
    Phenology
    Dieffenbachia seguine flowers and develops mature fruit to some extent all year-round, but with more flowering occurring in the late dry season and throughout the early part of the dry season between March and September.
    Distribution
    Dieffenbachia seguine ranges throughout much of the West Indies from Cuba (Ileana Arias, Havana, pers. comm.), Jamaica , Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico , through the Lesser Antilles to'Irinidad and South Ameriea , there ranging throughout much of Venezuela ( Amazonas, Aragua, Apure, Bolivar, Carabobo, Delta Amacuro, Distrito Federal, Falcon, 1ara, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia), espeially in the Cordillera de 1a Costa, to Guyana and Suriname (Boggen et al., 1992), French Guiana, eastern Brazil (Amapa, Amazonas, Goias, Maranhao, Para, Rondonia Sao Paulo), and west to the lowlands of Colombia (Meta, Vaupes, Vichada), eastern Ecuador (Napo), and Bolivia (Pando, Santa Cruz).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Borneo, Cook Is., Gulf of Guinea Is., Malaya, Mexico Southwest, Seychelles, Society Is.

    Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacq.) Schott appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 19, 2004 Haigh, A.L. [84], French Guiana K000099815
    51552.000
    Bogner [s.n.] 56139.000
    Guyana Dieffenbachia picta subvar. jenmanii 29047.069
    Dieffenbachia picta var. barraquiniana 36016.000
    Dieffenbachia picta 29047.157

    First published in H.W.Schott & S.L.Endlicher, Melet. Bot.: 20 (1832)

    Accepted by

    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
    • Croat, T. (2004). Revision of Dieffenbachia (Araceae) of Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 91: 668-772.
    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Croat, T. (2004). Revision of Dieffenbachia (Araceae) of Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 91: 668-772.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Schott, Nicolson in Fl. Vitiensis Nov. 1: 452 (1979).

    Sources

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/