1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Cola Schott & Endl.
      1. Cola usambarensis Engl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is NE. Tanzania.

    [FTEA]

    Sterculiaceae, Martin Cheek & Laurence Dorr; Nesogordonia, Laurence Dorr, Lisa Barnett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2007

    Type
    Type: Tanzania, Lushoto District: Amani, Engler 3423 (B†, holo.)
    Habit
    Evergreen tree up to 15 m high.
    Stem
    Stems terete, 1.5–4 mm wide, brown or grey, sparsely covered with appressed grey stellate hairs when young, soon becoming glabrous; budscales falling early, ovate-triangular, 1–3 mm long, ± 1 mm wide
    Leaves
    Leaves often with spherical woody galls ± 5 mm diameter on the petiole, less often on the blade; blade oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, the smallest ovate to elliptic, 2.5–25 cm long, 1.2–10(–13) cm wide, acumen blunt, 6–12 mm long, 5 mm wide, base cuneate, 5–6 pairs of main veins, glabrous above and beneath; petiole terete, 4–10 cm long, the smallest leaves subsessile, indumentum as stem; stipules linear, 6.5 mm long, 1 mm wide
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence in leaf-axils at least 3–4 leaves below the stem apex, 1(–2)-flowered; bracts 4–6, increasing in size towards the flower, the largest bract conspicuously bilobed, ± 1 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, brown, glabrous; stalk stout, 1–2 mm long, indumentum as perianth
    Flowers
    Flowers with perianth cream or brownish cream, ± campanulate, divided for 1/3–1/2 into 4 incurved lobes; outer surface stellate-pubescent, inner surface thickly covered in papillae Male flowers 4.7–6 mm long; androphore 1.5 mm long, 0.4 mm wide at the base tapering to 0.3 mm at the apex, glabrous; anthers uniseriate, 8–10, glabrous, in a disc ± 1 mm long, 1.5 mm diameter; ovary vestigial, concealed Female flowers 7.5–10 mm long; androphore absent; anthers reduced, 7 or 8 at base of ovary; ovary globose, 3–3.8 mm long, 4.2–4.5 mm wide, densely and coarsely tomentose; style up to 0.8 mm long; stigmas 4, black, patent, 2 mm long
    Male
    Male flowers 4.7–6 mm long; androphore 1.5 mm long, 0.4 mm wide at the base tapering to 0.3 mm at the apex, glabrous; anthers uniseriate, 8–10, glabrous, in a disc ± 1 mm long, 1.5 mm diameter; ovary vestigial, concealed
    Female
    Female flowers 7.5–10 mm long; androphore absent; anthers reduced, 7 or 8 at base of ovary; ovary globose, 3–3.8 mm long, 4.2–4.5 mm wide, densely and coarsely tomentose; style up to 0.8 mm long; stigmas 4, black, patent, 2 mm long
    Fruits
    Fruits with up to 4 carpels developing, carpels ascending, shortly oblongcylindric, up to 5 cm long, 3 cm wide, 2.5 cm deep, rostrum triangular, laterally flattened, 5–7 mm long, 3–5 mm wide, base sessile, suture with a low ridge; densely stellate-hairy with minute powdery golden brown hairs, pericarp papery-leathery.
    Seeds
    Seeds in two ranks, up to 14, testa white, cotyledons red ( fide Luke & Muir 6086).
    Ecology
    Evergreen forest; ± 900 m
    Conservation
    Cola usambarensis is listed as DD (Data Deficient) by IUCN (2002 Redlist, www.redlist.org). A study to investigate the factors affecting the distribution of Cola usambarensis was concluded as an MSc Thesis by Muir (1998, Univ. College, London). Although detailed data were gathered, confusion as to the identification of the species arose. Material assumed to be Cola usambarensis at some of the study sites later proved to be an unrelated species, C. lukei (Cheek in K.B. 57: 417 (2002)). Although Muir (1998) records the species from six protected areas, there is only evidence in the form of fertile specimens to support the existence of C. usambarensis at one of these, the Amani Forest Reserve, in the East Usambara Mountains, which occupies less than 100 km2. Muir (loc. cit.) records that the species is harvested for use as poles, medicine, and in one case, rope (from the bark). While there is some doubt as to which, if not all, these species of Cola these uses apply to, there is no doubt that C. usambarensis is at risk and that its habitat is declining due to the illegal harvest of building materials (Muir 1998). It is here assessed as Critically Endangered (CR B1a+b(iii)), reflecting that it is only known from a single location, that there is a decline in habitat quality and that its extent of occurrence is less than 100 km2. Muir (op. cit.) rates the species as Endangered.
    Note
    Only three flowering specimens, cited above, are known to me. In the absence of flowers, identification is uncertain, although the 5 mm diameter globose woody galls present on the leaves may be unique to this species. However, not all specimens seem to bear them. Brenan (1956, op. cit.) also mentions Zimmerman 6759 (EA - buds) from Kwamkoro, 12 Nov. 1907. Ruffo et al. (in Hamilton and Bensted-Smith, Forest Conservation in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. IUCN (1989)) mention two further collections: Ruffo & Mmari 2025 (Kwamkoro F.R. & Amani area) and Ruffo & Mmari 2246 (Kwamsambia/Kihuhwi F.R.), probably at Lushoto and/or EA: these have not been verified by me. The only fruiting collections known are Luke 5245, 6080, 6085 and 6086, all from Mbomole Hill.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: T3 Range: Not known elsewhere
    [FTEA]
    Use
    Flora districts: Used for poles for house construction and medicine (Muir loc. cit.).

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Tanzania

    Cola usambarensis Engl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 2005 L [6080], Tanzania 73591.000

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 39: 595 (1907)

    Accepted by

    • Cheek, M. & Dorr, L. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Sterculiaceae: 1-134.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • K.B. 11: 151 (1956).
    • T.T.C.L.: 594 (1949)
    • B.J.B.B. 18: 4 (1946)
    • E.J. 39: 595 (1907)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0