1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Cola Schott & Endl.
      1. Cola mossambicensis Wild

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tanzania to S. Malawi.

    [FZ]

    Sterculiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Evergreen tree up to 27 m. tall; young branches softly and ferruginously stellate-tomentose, soon glabrescent; bark ashy-grey.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina up to 22 × 9·5 cm., coriaceous or subcoriaceous, obovate-elliptic to obovate, apex abruptly acuminate, margin entire or sinuate, base broadly cuneate or narrowly rounded, glabrous on both surfaces except when very young, midrib prominent on both surfaces, nerves in 12–15 pairs, slightly prominent above, very prominent beneath, venation reticulate, prominent beneath; petiole up to 6 cm. long, softly tomentellous but soon glabrescent, with a persistently puberulous pulvinus; stipules up to 7 mm. long, caducous, linear-lanceolate, ferruginously tomentose.
    Flowers
    Flowers in few- to many-flowered fascicles on the 1–3-year-old wood. Female flowers as in the male but with 4 stellate-tomentose, 2-ovulate carpels; style 1 mm. long, stellate-tomentose; stigmas 1 × 0·75 mm., patent, papillose; anthers 6–7, sessile, surrounding the base of the carpels. Male flowers ferruginously tomentose; pedicels c. 1 cm. long, not articulated; calyx campanulaterotate, deeply 5–6-lobed, densely light-brown-pubescent or -tomentose outside; tube glabrous within, 1·5 mm. long; lobes 3·5–6 × 2·5–3 mm., narrowly ovate, apex acute, with 3 longitudinal nerves, densely stellate-pubescent in the upper half within, with minute globose papillae below; androphore c. 3 mm. long, densely stellate-pubescent to near the apex, crowned by a uniseriate ring of 5–6 anthers; vestigial carpels 4, immersed in the top.
    Male
    Male flowers ferruginously tomentose; pedicels c. 1 cm. long, not articulated; calyx campanulaterotate, deeply 5–6-lobed, densely light-brown-pubescent or -tomentose outside; tube glabrous within, 1·5 mm. long; lobes 3·5–6 × 2·5–3 mm., narrowly ovate, apex acute, with 3 longitudinal nerves, densely stellate-pubescent in the upper half within, with minute globose papillae below; androphore c. 3 mm. long, densely stellate-pubescent to near the apex, crowned by a uniseriate ring of 5–6 anthers; vestigial carpels 4, immersed in the top.
    Female
    Female flowers as in the male but with 4 stellate-tomentose, 2-ovulate carpels; style 1 mm. long, stellate-tomentose; stigmas 1 × 0·75 mm., patent, papillose; anthers 6–7, sessile, surrounding the base of the carpels.
    Fruits
    Follicles 1–2, 1·3–1·4 × 1·3–1·7 cm., sessile or subsessile, fubglobose, apex rounded or bluntly mucronate, slightly narrowed at the base, serruginously stellate-tomentose, 1–2-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, c. 1·2 × 0·9 cm.; testa brown, rugulose.
    [FTEA]

    Sterculiaceae, Martin Cheek & Laurence Dorr; Nesogordonia, Laurence Dorr, Lisa Barnett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2007

    Type
    Type: Mozambique, Manica e Sofala, Espungabera, Gogoi Mt, Torre 4308 (LISC, holo., K!, SRGH, iso.)
    Habit
    Evergreen tree, (3–)18–35 m tall.
    Bole
    Bole fluted and buttressed in larger specimens, bark ashy grey or pale brown; ultimate branchlets terete, 4–5 mm wide, with reddish brown scurf when young, soon or at length lost, revealing a white, longitudinally ridged, epidermis; bud-scales not seen, caducous
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade oblanceolate or elliptic, (2–)14–21 cm long, (0.8–)7–11 cm wide, apex acuminate, base acute to rounded, 12–15 pairs of main veins, quaternary veins conspicuous on both surfaces, leathery, glabrous; petiole terete, 1–100 mm long, 1–2 mm wide, pulvini with caducous reddish brown scurf; stipules triangular, ± 3–4 mm long, 2–3 mm wide, grey pubescent, caducous, seen only in buds
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, amongst the leaves, with fascicles of ± 6–10 flowers; bracts numerous, concave, rounded-triangular, 2–3 mm long, 2 mm across, apex entire, outer surface densely brown pubescent; flower stalk 6–9 mm long, articulation absent or obscure in flower, basal in fruit, with dense orange-red hairs
    Flowers
    Flowers white or cream, perianth divided for 6/7 into 5 lobes each 4–7 mm long, 2–2.5 mm across, outer surface as stalk, inner densely hairy in upper half and densely and minutely papillate throughout Male flowers with androphore terete ± 3 mm long, densely stellate-pubescent; anthers uniseriate, 5–6, glabrous, in a disc 1–1.5 mm long, 1.5–2.5 mm diameter; ovary vestigial, concealed Female flowers with androphore absent; anthers barely reduced, at base of ovary; ovary subglobose, ± 1.5 mm diameter, densely pale brown tomentose; style 1.5 mm long; stigmas 4, recurved, ± 1 mm long, 0.7 mm wide, papillose
    Male
    Male flowers with androphore terete ± 3 mm long, densely stellate-pubescent; anthers uniseriate, 5–6, glabrous, in a disc 1–1.5 mm long, 1.5–2.5 mm diameter; ovary vestigial, concealed
    Female
    Female flowers with androphore absent; anthers barely reduced, at base of ovary; ovary subglobose, ± 1.5 mm diameter, densely pale brown tomentose; style 1.5 mm long; stigmas 4, recurved, ± 1 mm long, 0.7 mm wide, papillose
    Fruits
    Fruitlets 1–5, brown, downy, transverse ridges faint, two pairs, subglobose-obovoid ± 1.4 cm long, 1.3 cm wide, stipe ± 2 mm long, rostrum ± 1.5 mm diameter
    Ecology
    Forest; altitude unknown but probably less than 900 m
    Conservation
    Cola mossambicensis is listed as VU B1+2C, i.e. vulnerable, (www.redlist.org), based on an assessment by S. Bandeira in 1988 (Bandeira, S. 1995. Data collection forms for tree species of Mozambique). Bandeira noted that this species is severely threatened by the decline in quality and conversion of its habitat for agricultural purposes. However he cited the species as mainly occurring in central Mozambique, and only possibly occurring in Malawi. In fact, of the 17 specimens known, most are from Malawi, where it occurs in Mlanje, Dedze, Ncheu and Zomba Districts, seven of the specimens occurring in Zomba District. Six specimens are known from Mozambique, namely from Manica e Sofala, Zambezia and Zambezia-Niassa Provinces. Since the species is now known from more than ten sites (the 17 specimens are derived from 11 sites) and has an extent of occurrence that now exceeds the IUCN (2001), criterion for vulnerable status, it may be more appropriate to treat the species as near threatened (NT) unless conversion of its habitat can be shown to have been 30 or more in the last 100 years.
    Note
    Cola mossambicensis is only likely to be confused with C. microcarpa, since they both have the young stems and petiole covered in a thick scurfy-felt like layer of red-brown hairs that is shed to reveal white stems, unusual features in East African members of the genus. However, they differ from each other in several floral and fruit features (see the key). In addition, C. mossambicensis is distinctive in that it is a tall tree with a fluted bole, and in that the white stems are conspicuously longitudinally grooved, with hair remnants showing darkly in the grooves. The leafy stems are particularly straight, stout and bear leaves at unusually regular intervals (1.5–2 cm) for a Cola. Moreover the petioles are very long, 10 cm being common. These features make the species determinable with some confidence even when sterile, which is not normally the case for simple-leaved Cola species. Specimens labelled C. microcarpa from T 4 (Kigoma District: Kasye Forest, buds 25 March 1994, Bidgood et al. 2962, ibid. fr. 2964; Mt Livandabe, y.fr.28 May 1997, Bidgood et al. 4152) may well represent C. mossambicensis since they have the distinctive characteristics referred to in the paragraph above. Their altitudinal range (850–1200 m) is also seen in the material of the species from Malawi. However flowering material is needed to confirm this identification. The limited fruiting material (only 3 mericarps are available) differs from C. mossambicensis in being more sparsely hairy than usual, and in lacking a rostrum and ridges, so it is also possible that this represents yet another new taxon for the area.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: T?4, T8 Range: Malawi and Mozambique
    [FTEA]
    Use
    Mkupete (Kimwera), timber, fide Semsei 733.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania

    Cola mossambicensis Wild appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1958 Hornby, A.J.W. [1384], Mozambique K000049818
    Jan 1, 1958 Hornby, A.J.W. [1384], Mozambique K000049819
    Jan 1, 1958 Gomes Pedro, J. [4219], Mozambique K000049820
    Jan 1, 1958 Simao, J. [839], Mozambique K000049816
    Jan 1, 1958 Simao, J. [839], Mozambique K000049817
    Chapman, J.D. [1684], Malawi K000049813
    Torre, A.R. [4308], Mozambique K000049822 isotype
    Salubeni, A.J. [1704], Malawi K000049810
    Clements, J.B. [67], Malawi K000049812
    Müller, T. [1557], Malawi K000049811
    Müller, T. [1929], Mozambique K000049815
    Balaka, J.L. [261], Malawi K000049814
    Balaka, J.L. [353], Malawi K000049809
    Balaka, J.L. [298], Malawi K000049808
    Mendouça, F.A. [2303], Mozambique K000049821

    First published in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 33: 39 (1959)

    Accepted by

    • Cheek, M. & Dorr, L. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Sterculiaceae: 1-134.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Cheek, M. & Dorr, L. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Sterculiaceae: 1-134.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Palgrave, Trees of Southern Africa: 599 (1977).
    • F.Z. 1: 560 (1961)
    • Bol. Soc. Brot. Ser. 2, 33: 39 (1959)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0