Skip to main content
  1. Family: Plantaginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Limnophila R.Br.
      1. Limnophila fluviatilis A.Chev.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to Chad and Namibia.

    [FTEA]

    Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Type
    Type: Mali, Niger R., from Timbouctou to Gao, Chevalier 43079 (P!, holo.)
    Habit
    Aquatic perennial; aerial stems up to 10 cm tall, simple or rarely branched except at base, glabrous to sparsely hirsute, particularly above; submerged stems up to 35 cm long, branching, glabrous
    Leaves
    Leaves on aerial stems verticillate, irregularly pinnatisect to lacerate or deeply divided, 4–18 mm long, 1–6 mm wide, glabrous, densely punctate, frequently with sessile yellow glands; submerged leaves verticillate, pinnatisect, multifid, up to 2.5 cm long, segments capillary or more usually flattened, glabrous
    Flowers
    Chasmogamous flowers: bracteoles 2, 2–3.5 mm long, narrowly linear, glabrous to sparsely hirsute; calyx 3–4.5 mm long, glabrous, frequently with yellow glands; corolla 4–6.5 mm long, white to lilac, throat yellow, externally glabrous, occasionally very sparsely villous within the tube; stamens 4 with contiguous anthers at anthesis, filaments 0.5–2 mm long, anthers median attached to slightly swollen connective, thecae subparallel; stigma truncate to emarginate, style 1–2 mm long; capsule subflattened ovoid, 3–4 mm long, dark brown, subtruncate to emarginate Cleistogamous flowers usually present on submerged stems Flowers solitary, axillary, sessile on submerged stems, solitary or clustered on very short axillary few-flowered racemes on aerial stems Cleistogamous flowers: bracteoles 2.5–6 mm long, narrowly linear, glabrous; calyx 3–6 mm long, glabrous; corolla 3.5–4.75 mm long, glabrous to sparsely villous within the tube; stamens 4 with contiguous anthers, filaments ± 0.3 mm long, anthers as above; style 0.8–1 mm long; capsule broadly ovoid, 2.3–4 mm long, light brown, translucent, emarginate to subspherical.
    Ecology
    Submerged in shallow, fresh or stagnant, standing or slow-running water, or terrestrial on margins of rivers or lakes, or receeding floodplains; ± 1280 m
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC); widespread
    Distribution
    Range: Senegal, Mali, Guinea, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Kinshasa, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia Flora districts: T5 T8
    [FZ]

    Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

    Habit
    Amphibious perennial.
    Stem
    Stems: aerial stems to 10 cm. tall, simple or rarely branching except at base, glabrous to sparsely hirsute, particularly above; submerged stems to 35 cm. long, branching, glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves on aerial stems verticillate, irregularly pinnatisect to lacerate, 4–18 x 1–6 mm., glabrous, densely punctate, frequently with sessile yellow glands; submerged leaves to 2.5 cm. long, pinnatisect-multifid, segments capillary or more usually flattened, glabrous.
    Flowers
    Cleistogamous flowers; bracteoles 2.5–6 mm. long, narrowly linear, glabrous; calyx 3–6 mm. long, glabrous; corolla 3.5–4.75 mm. long, glabrous to sparsely villous within tube; stamens four with contiguous anthers, filaments c. 0.25 mm. long, anthers as above; style 0.75–1 mm. long; capsule 2.25–4 mm. long, light brown, translucent, broadly ovoid, emarginate to subspherical. Chasmogamous flowers: bracteoles 2–3.5 mm. long, narrowly linear, glabrous to sparsely hirsute; calyx 3–4.5 mm. long, glabrous, frequently with yellow glands; corolla 4–6.5 mm. long, white to lilac, throat yellow, externally glabrous, occasionally very sparsely villous within tube; stamens four with contiguous anthers at anthesis, filaments 0.5–2 mm. long, anthers median attached to slightly swollen connective, thecae almost parallel; stigma truncate to emarginate, style 1–2 mm. long; capsule 3–4 mm. long, dark brown, subtruncate to emarginate, somewhat flattened, ovoid. Flowers solitary, axillary, sessile on submerged stems, solitary or clustered on very short axillary few-flowered racemes on aerial stems; cleistogamous flowers usually present on submerged stems.
    [FTEA]
    Use
    None recorded on specimens from our area

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Guinea, Mali, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Other Data

    Limnophila fluviatilis A.Chev. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1975 Chevalier, A. [43766], Mali K000379574 isotype
    Jan 1, 1975 Chevalier, A. [113766], Mali K000483381

    Bibliography

    First published in Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., sér. 2, 4: 587 (1932)

    Accepted by

    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Fischer, E. (1999). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Scrophulariaceae: 1-217. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Philcox, D. (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 8(2): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.

    Not accepted by

    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544. [Cited as Limnophila barteri.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Fischer, E. (1999). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Scrophulariaceae: 1-217. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fischer, F.A.C. Scrophulariaceae: 56, pl. 20 (1999).
    • Adansonia ser. 2, 15: 236, t. 3, 4, 6 (1975)
    • Adansonia 7: 351 (1967)
    • Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, ser. 2, 4: 587 (1932)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0