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  1. Family: Plantaginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Bacopa Aubl.
      1. Bacopa crenata (P.Beauv.) Hepper

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. & W. Central Tropical Africa to Sudan and KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar.

    [FWTA]

    Scrophulariaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Creeping and ascending herb with soft spongy stems a few inches to 3 ft. long, rooting at the lower nodes
    Flowers
    Flowers white
    Ecology
    In swamps and ditches.
    [FZ]

    Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

    Habit
    Decumbent or ascending, glandular-punctate herb up to 30 cm. tall, subglabrous; sterns simple or branched.
    Leaves
    Leaves 9–33.5(50) x 3–12(18) mm., lanceolate to ovate, obtuse or subacute, cuneate at base into short, broad petiole or subsessile, crenulate to crenate-serrate, glandular-punctate, markedly so beneath.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary-axillary, white to occasionally pale violet, bibracteate.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 5–9 mm. long, winged just below calyx.
    Bracts
    Bracts 1–1.5 mm. long, narrowly linear.
    Calyx
    Calyx with lateral lobes ovate-lanceolate, narrow, keeled, ciliate; posterior lobe 6–7 mm. long, 4–4.5 mm. wide, up to 9 mm. long, 6 mm. wide in fruit; anterior similar to but somewhat narrower than posterior; all lobes strongly reticulate-nerved.
    Fruits
    Capsule 4 x 2.5 mm., ellipsoid, foveolate, somewhat densely minutely glandular.
    [FTEA]

    Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Type
    Type: Nigeria, without locality, P. Beauvois s.n. (G!, holo.)
    Habit
    Ascending herb, sometimes a simple annual (see note), up to 40 cm high.
    Stem
    Stems fleshy, trailing, rooting at nodes, glabrous or nearly so
    Leaves
    Leaves lanceolate to ovate, 1.5–4(–8) cm long, (0.2–)0.6–1.2(–2.3) cm wide, narrowed at the base into a short petiole or sessile or base amplexicaul, obtuse to acute at apex, margins crenateserrate, glandular-punctate
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in most leaf axils; pedicels 1–3(–5) mm long
    Bracts
    Bracts 2, 1.5 mm long, setaceous
    Calyx
    Calyx glabrous, the outer lobes broadly ovate, posterior lobe largest, 8–9 mm long and 4–5 mm wide, in fruit reticulate-veined; other lobes successively smaller and narrower, lateral lobes somewhat keeled
    Corolla
    Corolla pure white with yellow mark in the throat, slightly longer than the calyx; upper lip emarginate, lower lip equally 3-lobed.
    Style
    Style and ovary glabrous
    Fruits
    Capsule 3–4 mm, ovoid, glandular
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid.
    Ecology
    Grassy swamps and salt marshes; 0–1600 m
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC); widespread
    Note
    Typically this species has a stout ascending stem and rooting habit, but in brackishmarshy habitats it tends to be a small annual with a simple erect stem; these are ecotypes and cannot be considered as separate taxa.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: K7 T3 T5 T6 T8 Z P Range: Senegal eastwards to the Sudan and southwards to Mozambique and Angola, Madagascar
    [FTEA]
    Use
    None recorded on specimens from our area

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Zambia, Zaïre

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Bacopa crenata (P.Beauv.) Hepper appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [11745], Cameroon K000023312
    Welwitsch [5875], Angola K001008368
    Welwitsch [5877], Angola K001008369
    Welwitsch [5909/5918], Angola K001008370
    Welwitsch [5918], Angola K001008371
    Leprieur [214], Senegal K000405199 isosyntype
    Guillemin [12], Senegal K000405200 isosyntype

    Bibliography

    First published in Kew Bull. 14: 407 (1960)

    Accepted by

    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2016). Flore du Gabon 48: 1-158. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Fischer, E. (1999). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Scrophulariaceae: 1-217. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Philcox, D. (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 8(2): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • in Kew Bull. 14: 407 (1960).

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fischer, F.A.C. Scrophulariaceae: 28, pl. 7 (1999).
    • F.Z.: 8(2): 49 (1990)
    • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 359 (1963)
    • K.B. 14: 407 (1960)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0