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This species is accepted, and its native range is Iran.


Pahlevani, A.H. & Rad, M.A. (2019). Two new alpine species of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) from Iran. Kew Bulletin 74: 49.

So far, only three localities for the newly discovered specieshave been found, the type locality and two others nearby in W Mazandaran and in Ardebil province. Based on the limited geographical distribution, IUCN Red list categories and the conservation analysis with limited Extent of occurrence (EOO: 1727.746 km2) and Area of occupancy (AOO: 1083 km2), its conservation status is assessed as ‘Endangered’ (EN B1a,b,i,ii,iii,iv) (IUCN 2017).
Asia: Iran.
Alpine zone of Talysh Mountains, the subrange of the western part of Alborz Mountains, on rocky and gravelly ground; alt. 2800 – 3710 m.
Terminal rays 1 – 2, not dichotomous; with no axillary rays
Morphology General Habit
Dwarf glabrous or sparsely puberulent caespitose perennial shrublets, 4 – 9 (10) cm high
Morphology Leaves
Raylet-leaves 2, similar to the ray-leaves but smaller Ray-leaves 2 – 5, sessile, ovate to ovate-orbicular, 5 – 7 × 3.5 – 6.5 mm, truncate to obtuse at the base, entire and cartilaginous at margin, acute to subacute at apex, glabrous to sparsely pilose Cauline leaves sessile, lanceolate, 4 – 10 (14) × 1.5 – 4 mm, attenuate at the base, margin entire to subentire toward apex, apex acute to attenuate, without prominent nerves or only midrib, glabrous to sparsely puberulous abaxially especially at margin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary smooth, glabrous, style free at the base, up to 1 mm long, stigma 6, bifid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules conical, shallowly trilobate, 3 – 4 × 2 – 3 mm, smooth, glabrous, pedicels 3.5 – 5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Cyathial involucre campanulate, 1.2 – 1.8 mm in diam., internally pilose and externally glabrous; lobes ovate to ovate-lanceolate and praemorse, glands 4, gland appendages oblong and truncate, brownish, with two rather long, delicate and stramineous horns
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds conical, irregularly and obscurely pitted, 2.2 – 2.8 × 1.6 – 1.8 mm, gray to light brown, caruncle conical, 0.5 – 0.6 × 0.6 – 0.7 mm, ochraceous.
Morphology Stem
Stems numerous, decumbent to ascending, arising from short caudiculi born on a woody stock
Euphorbia mirzakhaniana is closely related to E. gypsicola, but differs by growing as small shrublets (4 – 9 (10) cm high) instead of rather large perennial herbs (20 – 30 cm high), cauline leaves lanceolate (vs ovate to orbicular), 4 – 10 (14) × 1.5 – 4 mm (vs 8 – 16 × 5 – 10 mm); terminal rays 1 (– 2) (vs (3 –) 5); Cyathial glands with two rather long and delicate horns (vs hornless or with very short horns), capsules smaller (3 – 4 × 2 – 3 mm instead of 4.5 – 5.3 × 4.2 – 5 mm). Euphorbia mirzakhaniana belongs to sect. Pithyusa and is sister to E. gypsicola (unpublished data). Euphorbia mirzakhaniana is a mountain-dwelling species which is limited to the alpine region of the Talysh Mountains, whereas, E. gypsicola is a local endemic species which is limited to the gypsum hills in some gypsiferous regions of Semnan province at 1100 – 1600 m elevation. The epithet ‘mirzakhaniana’ is named in honour of Maryam Mirzakhani, the Iranian mathematician and ex-professor of mathematics at Stanford University, the only woman who was awarded the Fields Medal.
Flowering specimens found from the end of the June to July. Fruiting specimens found from July to Aug.
Iran, Mazandaran, Ramsar, Javaherdeh, Samamous Mt, 3500 – 3710 m, 36°50'N, 50°23'E, 2 Aug. 2015, Amini Rad & Bahramishad 74617 (holotype IRAN!, isotype W!).

Native to:


Euphorbia mirzakhaniana Pahlevani appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Kew Bull. 74(3)-49: 5 (2019)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. Scientific Data 8: 215.


Kew Bulletin

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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.