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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World to Caucasus.
Kyllinga nemoralis


Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá.

Adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 300 - 2660 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
No Evaluada


Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

Least concern (LC), though uncommon in our area
Haines & Lye cite both Kyllinga nemoralis and Kyllinga monocephala Rottb. as synonyms of their Cyperus kyllingia Endl.; the latter name dates from 1842 and so has no priority. The second one, however, dates back to 1773: K. monocephala Rottb., Descr. Icon. Pl.: 13, t. 4 fig. 4 (1773); L. f., Suppl. Pl.: 104 (1781); P.O.A. C: 123 (1895); C.B. Clarke in F.T.A. 8: 272 “excl. certain syns.” (1902). No type mentioned; referring to several pre-Linnean names. The plate should probably be the type. I am uncertain about which name should be used, but here follow Napper; there are no fewer than six other taxa named K. monocephala, though the Rottbøll name is the oldest. The Forsters’ protologue has no details about the species at all, no specimen or origin mentioned, no description – but the name is validated by the ‘descriptio generico-specifica” (Code, art. 42.1) as the genus Thryocephalon is described by the Forsters, and nemorale is the only species therein. I have therefore chosen the plate as the type. Cited by Kükenthal for T 6 (Uluguru, Stuhlmann 8889) but I have not seen any specimens from there (including at B).
Type: no type indicated (see Note); lectotype: J.R. & G. Forster, Char. Gen. Pl.: t. 65 (iconotype)
Morphology General Habit
Perennial, up to 30 cm tall, with branching horizontal rhizome.
Morphology Culms
Culms rather spaced along rhizome, or sometimes dense, 8–24 cm long, 0.8–1.5 mm wide, triangular, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaf blade dark green, linear, flat, 10–21 cm long, 2–4 mm wide, scabrid on margins and midrib Leaf sheath pale to mid-brown, 1–6 cm long. Leaves up to 21 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucral bracts leaf-like, spreading or reflexed, 3–4, lowermost 8–18 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a globose or ovoid sessile head of a single spike (rarely with 1–2 smaller spikes) 3–8 mm across.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets many, narrowly ovoid, 2–2.5 mm long, 0.6–1 mm wide, 1–2-flowered.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes whitish, fading to pale redbrown, 2–2.5 mm long, keel winged (sometimes not very prominent) with minute teeth, apex acuminate; 2–4 veins on each side of midrib
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet black, oblong and flattened, 1–1.3 mm long, 0.7–0.9 mm wide, minutely papillose.
Forest where canopy is opened, forest clearings; 450–1200 m
Flora districts: U2 U3 U4 T1 T3 T ?6 (see note) Range: West Africa, Congo-Kinshasa, Mozambique; Madagascar, Indian Ocean Islands, India, Sri Lanka and SE Asia


Cyperaceae, Miss S. S. Hooper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Rhizome slender, creeping, bearing stems at intervals
Morphology Leaves
Bracts and leaves long, flaccid, nut black
A weed of secondary forest and disturbed habitats.

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Gabon, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazan-retto, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Brazil Northeast, Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Colombia, Fiji, Hawaii, Jamaica, Kermadec Is., Leeward Is., Line Is., Marquesas, Nicobar Is., Niue, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

Cyperus mindorensis (Steud.) Huygh appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Sep 1, 2010 Cheek, M. [11818], Cameroon Kyllinga nemoralis K000338989
Jan 1, 1965 Roxburgh, W. [s.n.] Kyllinga nemoralis K000308268
Cuming, H. [1558], Philippines Kyllinga nemoralis K000290929 Unknown type material
Vidal, S. [3981], Philippines Kyllinga nemoralis K000290930
Kastalsky, G. [s.n.], Philippines Kyllinga nemoralis K000290931
Merril, E.D. [86], Philippines Kyllinga nemoralis K000290932
Loher, A. [770], Philippines Kyllinga nemoralis K000290933
Copeland, E.B. [548], Philippines Kyllinga nemoralis K000290934
unknown [53?], Philippines Kyllinga nemoralis K000290935
Kloss, C.B. [6937], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595266
Marcan, A. [1435], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595270
Hoed, G.den [888], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595275
Robinson, H.C. [6464], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595265
Chantaranothai, P. [1349], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595277
Dallachy, J. [s.n.], Queensland Kyllinga nemoralis K000308270 syntype
Put [26], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595272
Phusomsaeng, S. [55], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595274
Leichhardt, F.W.L. [s.n.], Queensland Kyllinga nemoralis K000308271 syntype
Chantaranothai, P. [90/65], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595279
Rabil [210], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595276
Schomburgk, R. [327], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595267
Chantaranothai, P. [90/579], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595280
Pernambuco Kyllinga nemoralis K000189175
Chantaranothai, P. [1378], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595278
Kerr, A.F.G. [856], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595268
Kerr, A.F.G. [3825], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595269
Collins, D.J. [850], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595271
Hoed, G.den [146], Thailand Kyllinga nemoralis K000595273

First published in Phytotaxa 166: 39 (2014)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. Scientific Data 8: 215.
  • Middleton, D.J. & al. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Singapore 7: 1-525. Singapore Botanic Gardens.


Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet;"

Kew Backbone Distributions

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  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Florence, J., Waldren, S. & Chepstow-Lusty, A.J. (1995). The flora of the Pitcairn islands: a review Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 79-119.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hoenselaar, K., Verdcourt, B. & Beentje, H. (2010). Cyperaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-466.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagner, W.L. (2019). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 1: 1-411. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

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