Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Netherlands Antilles to Venezuela (Falcón).


Rasingam, L., Chorghe, A., Meve, U. et al. 2013. Brachystelma penchalakonense (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) — a new species from Andhra Pradesh, India. Kew Bulletin 68: 663.

Vulnerable (VU) category of IUCN (2001). Cyperusbonariensis appears to fit this category, based on an “observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over the last 10 years.” Specimens document three populations, and none collected since 1980. The narrow range, restricted habitat, and few collections also indicate the need for conservation.
Netherland Antilles, Venezuela.
Sandy or rocky coastal habitats, upper edges of beaches, in dry or brushy areas; alt. 0 –10 m.
Morphology Culms
Culms 1.2 – 1.4 mm thick, trigonous, smooth
Morphology General Habit
Perennial, 15 – 25 (− 35) cm tall, forming mats
Morphology General Scales
Floral scales persistent, closely appressed, 8 – 16, 2.6 – 3.4 mm long, 1.6 – 2 mm wide, ovate to orbiculate, blunt to mucronulate, the mucro 0.1 mm long, laterally 5-nerved, brownish with hyaline margin 0.2 – 0.3 mm wide, medially 1 – 3 nerved, smooth, brownish
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 4 – 8, 12 – 35 cm long, 1.5 – 3.5 mm wide, flat to v-shaped, coriaceous, greyish-blue, smooth, except for scattered prickles on the keel and margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3; filaments c. 2.5 mm long; anthers 0.75 mm long, with distinct red connective apex scarcely 0.1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles 0.5 mm long; stigmas 3, 1 – 1.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achenes 1.1 – 1.2 mm long, 0.7 mm wide, trigonous, obovoid, the apex obtuse, apiculate, the base cuneate, finely papillose to essentially smooth, black
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence bracts 4, 3 – 12 (− 15) cm long, longest exceeding inflorescence, 0.4 – 3 (− 5) mm wide, inversely w-shaped, the margins and keel scabrellate, ascendent at about 75° Rays 5 – 7, 2 – 7 cm long, smooth; prophyll 5 – 7 mm long, strongly oblique apically Spikes 1, 15 – 25 mm long, 12 – 25 mm wide, obovoid; secondary rays none; rachis 10 – 14 mm; bract 1 – 2 mm long, lanceolate to deltate, prophyll 1 – 1.5 mm long, ovate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 8 – 14, ascendant, 15 – 20 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, linear to linear-lanceolate, compressed-quadrangular; rachilla deciduous, about 0.3 mm wide, red spotted, wings 0.2 – 0.3; successive scales (2 –) 2.5 – 3 mm apart
This species is limited to islands around the Bonaire Basin in the southern Caribbean Sea. This species is placed in sect. Thunbergiana (Kükenthal1935 – 1936). The compressed-quadrangular spikelets, the deciduous rachilla with wings, ± persistent floral scales, and the achene length (half that of the floral scale) are indicative of this placement. Two other species of this section, Cyperusplanifolius Rich. and C. caesius, occur in the Caribbean region in similar coastal habitats (Fedón Ch 2008). All three of these species have greyish blue or glaucous herbage and coriaceous leaves and bracts. They may be separated by the following key: Although similar toCyperuscaesius of sect. Thunbergiana (C. B. Clarke) Kük., C. bonariensis differs in lesser height, narrower culms, ascendant (not spreading) spikelets, appressed floral scales, spaced (2 –) 2.5 – 3 mm apart on the same side of the rachilla, and black achenes.
Fruiting specimens have been collected from April through October.
Type: Netherland Antilles: Bonaire: 1.5 km S of Kralendijk, sea level, 8 March 1977, C. Stark 2 (holotype K).
Vegetative Multiplication Rhizomes
Rhizomes short, fibrous, emitting short extravaginal shoots

Native to:

Netherlands Antilles, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles

Cyperus bonariensis G.C.Tucker appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Kew Bull. 68: 619 (2013)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. Scientific Data 8: 215.


Kew Bulletin

  • Fedón Ch, I. C. (2008). Catálogocomentado del géneroCyperus L. (Cyperaceae) en Venezuela. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, Caracas.
  • IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland & Cambridge.
  • Kükenthal, G. (1935 – 36). Cyperaceae-Scirpoideae-Cypereae. In: A. Engler (ed.), Das Pflanzenreich IV. 20 (Heft 101). Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.
  • Tucker, G. C. (1994). Revision of the Mexican Species of Cyperus L. (Cyperaceae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 43.
  • Tucker, G. C. (1998). Cyperus (Cyperaceae). In: P. Berry, B. Holst & K. Yatskievych (eds), Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 4: 523 – 541. New York Botanical Garden.
  • Tucker, G. C. (2007). Systematics of Cyperus L. section DiffusiKunth (Cyperaceae) in the Neotropics. In: L. M. Barbosa & N. A. Dos Santos, Jr. (eds), A Botânica no Brasil: pesquisa, ensino e políticaspúblicasambientais: 311 – 314. SociedadeBotânica do Brasil, São Paulo.

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.