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This species is accepted, and its native range is Bolivia.

[KBu]

Wood, J.R.I. 2012. Kew Bulletin 67: 257. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-012-9352-x

Conservation
Ruellia beniana has not been formally categorised. It is clearly a very rare plant known only from a single collection but systematic searches for it have not been made. It is probably best to categorise it, therefore as IUCN category (2001) DD (Data Deficient). However, Rurrenabaque is a relatively well-known area botanically and efforts to refind it by Alfredo Fuentes have been in vain so it is unlikely that there are extensive undiscovered populations in the vicinity. Although the habitat is not particularly vulnerable the very small size of the population suggests that an IUCN categorisation of CR (Critically Endangered) may eventually be assigned.
Distribution
Only known from the type locality in the Andean foothills in northern Bolivia. Map 1.
Ecology
In ‘cerrado’-type vegetation with Qualea multiflora Mart. and Pseudobombaxlongiflorum (Mart. & Zucc.) A. Robyns on a steep mountain slope.
Morphology General Habit
Isophyllous undershrub to 1.4 m; stems woody, branched, ± quadrangular, glabrous, brown, becoming ferruginous on younger parts
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; petioles 0.5 – 1.3 cm long, glabrous; lamina 7 – 13 × 2 – 4.5 cm, narrowly ovate to oblong-ovate, attenuate at the base, margin entire, obscurely undulate, apex acuminate to an obtuse point, glabrous and dotted with ferruginous glands on both surfaces, adaxial surface densely covered in cystoliths, abaxial surface much paler, the veins prominent, ferruginous, the midrib thinly pilose when very young (Fig. 2B) but soon glabrescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules 3 × 0.9 cm, oblong, glabrous; seeds not seen
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal, of 1 – 2 flowers in the uppermost leaf axils; bracts resembling leaves but smaller, 4 – 6 × 1.5 – 2.5 cm, subsessile and more abruptly narrowed at base; bracteoles 2 × 2 mm, triangular, perhaps caducous, calyx 6 – 7 mm long, densely gland-dotted, puberulent, subequally 5-lobed to c. 3 mm above the base, the lobes 4 × 1.5 mm, lanceolate, obtuse; corolla 8 – 9 cm long, funnel-shaped, pale blue, glabrous, basal cylindrical part 1.3 – 1.8 × 0.2 – 0.3 cm, then gradually widened to c. 2.5 cm at mouth, lobes subequal, ovate, 2 – 2.5 × 2 cm; stamens 4, didynamous, glabrous, inserted in the upper part of the cylindrical basal tube, shorter inner filaments 4 mm, longer outer filaments 12 – 13 mm, crossing diagonally in corolla examined (Fig. 2F), anthers 6 × 1 mm, oblong; pollen spheroidal; style 4.5 cm long, shortly pilose; stigma simple, clavate; ovary c. 5 mm long, narrowly oblong-ovoid, acuminate, gland-dotted
Note

Ruellia beniana is named after the Departamento de Beni. The type locality, Rurrenabaque, is situated within this Departamento along the Río Beni.

Ruellia beniana is only known from the type collection. It is probably most closely related to other species with foliose bracts such as R. tarapotana Lindau but can be distinguished by its much larger corolla, which reaches 9 cm, its relatively short corolla tube, which is only about a quarter the total length of the corolla and the short calyx, up to 7 mm long, with obtuse rather than acuminate lobes. In habit and form of inflorescence it resembles several other shrubby species of Ruellia with blue flowers, notably R. spectabilis from Peru, R. pacifica from Ecuador and Peru and forms of the Brazilian R. macrantha (Nees) Gower that lack a spicate inflorescence. R. beniana is more robust than the first two with the corolla c. 9 cm in length as opposed to c. 6 cm and the leaves are also larger. Additionally, the leaves are almost completely glabrous (a few hairs are present on the abaxial midrib of very young leaves) and the calyx is much shorter, the lobes scarcely longer than the basal part, lanceolate and apically obtuse, rather than long-attenuate. A notable feature of R. beniana is the abundance of conspicuous ferruginous gland-dots on all vegetative parts including the calyx and even the ovary. These provide the characteristic red-brown colour of the young stems and leaf veins. Although these glands are also present in specimens of R. pacifica they are much fewer in number. Glands are absent under normal magnification from R. tarapotana, R. spectabilis and R. macrantha. Although the corolla of R. beniana is similar in size to that of R. macrantha it is not resupinate and is quite glabrous, the two species not being closely related. None of the species with which R. beniana has been compared above occur in Bolivia, the record of R. tarapotana by Zurita et al. 84 in Tropicos (www. tropicos.org) being probably an error for Ruelliayurimaguensis Lindau.

Native to:

Bolivia

Ruellia beniana J.R.I.Wood appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Kew Bull. 67: 259 (2012)

Accepted by

  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Dubs, B. (1998). Prodromus Florae Matogrossensis. Betrona Verlag, Küsnacht.
  • IUCN (2001). Red List categories and Criteria, Version 3.1. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
  • Mamani, F., Pozo, P., Soto, D., Villarroel, D. & Wood, J. R. I. (ed.) (2010). Libro Rojo de las Plantas de losCerrados del Oriente Boliviano. Museo de Historia Natural ‘Noel Kempff Mercado’, Santa Cruz.
  • McDade, L. A., Daniel, T. F., Kiel, C. A. & Vollesen, K. (2005). Phylogenetic Relationships among Acantheae (Acanthaceae): Major Lineages Present Contrasting Patterns of Molecular Evolution and Morphological Differentiation. Syst. Bot. 30(4): 834 – 862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Schmidt-Lebuhn, A. & Tripp, E. A. (2009). Ruelliasaccata, a new species of Acanthaceae from Bolivia. Novon 19 (4): 515 – 519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Wasshausen, D. C. & Wood, J. R. I. (2004). Acanthaceae of Bolivia. Contrib. U.S. Natl. Herb. 49: 1 – 152.
  • Wasshausen, D. C. (1997). New species, new variety and new combinations in Stenandrium (Acanthaceae) from Ecuador and Colombia. Nordic J. Bot. 16 (4): 383 – 388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Wasshausen, D. C. (1999). Acanthaceae. In: P. M. Jørgensen & S. León-Yánez (eds), Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St Louis.
  • Wood, J. R. I. (2010). Further notes on Bolivian Justicia L. Kew Bull. 65: 77 – 81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Wood, J. R. I. (ed.) (2011). Guia Darwin de las Plantas de loscerrados de la Chiquitania. Museo de Historia Natural ‘Noel Kempff Mercado’, Santa Cruz.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0