1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus setaceus (Forssk.) Morrone

        This species is accepted, and its native range is N. Africa to Afghanistan and Tanzania.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3000 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennial.
    Culms
    Culms 20–130 cm. high.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae convolute with midrib noticeably thickened on upper surface, rigid, harsh, glaucous.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 6–30 cm. long, linear; rhachis cylindrical with shallow angular ribs below the stumpless scars, glabrous to pilose; involucre borne upon a slender pubescent stipe 1–3 mm. long, enclosing 1–3 spikelets, one of them sessile the others shortly pedicelled; bristles, at least the inner, shortly plumose, the longest 16–40 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 4.5–6.5 mm. long.
    Glume
    Inferior glume up to 1/3 length of spikelet, usually subrotund, sometimes suppressed; superior glume 1/4–2/3 length of spikelet.
    Inferior
    Inferior lemma as long as spikelet.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma similar to inferior, occasionally the rhachilla prolonged as a tiny bristle. Inferior lemma as long as spikelet.
    Superior
    Superior lemma similar to inferior, occasionally the rhachilla prolonged as a tiny bristle.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennial
    Leaves
    Hard glaucous leaf-blades.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms 20-130 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades convolute; 15-30 cm long; 1-3 mm wide; stiff; glaucous. Leaf-blade midrib widened.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 6-30 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular; glabrous, or pilose; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 1-3 in the cluster; 1 sessile. Involucre composed of bristles; oblong; 12-26 mm long; base bluntly stipitate (1-3mm); base pubescent. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with an outer whorl of thinner bristles; with one conspicuously longer bristle; 16-40 mm long; terete; flexible; plumose.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension, or with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-6.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension, or with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4.5-6.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure, or two; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate, or orbicular; 0.1-0.33 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 0 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume lanceolate, or ovate; 0.25-0.66 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume surface asperulous. Upper glume apex acute, or acuminate; mucronate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate, or ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 1-3(-5) -veined; scaberulous; rough on veins; acuminate; mucronate. Fertile lemma oblong; 4.5-6.5 mm long; membranous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 2.5-3.5 mm long; anther tip smooth. Styles connate below.
    Distribution
    Europe: southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: western Asia and Arabia. Asia-tropical: Malesia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern and north-central.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennial; culms 20–130 cm. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades up to 30 cm. long and 3 mm. wide, convolute with the midrib noticeably thickened on the upper surface, rigid, harsh, glaucous.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle linear, 6–30 cm. long; rhachis cylindrical with shallow angular ribs below the stumpless scars, glabrous to pilose; involucre borne upon a slender pubescent stipe 1–3 mm. long, enclosing 1–3 spikelets, one of them sessile the others shortly pedicelled; bristles, at least the inner, loosely plumose, the longest 16–40 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate, 4.5–6.5 mm. long; lower glume occasionally ovate and up to 1/3 the length of the spikelet, usually shorter and subrotund, sometimes suppressed; upper glume 1/4–2/3 the length of the spikelet; lower lemma as long as the spikelet, ♂ or barren, acuminate; upper lemma similar to the lower; occasionally the rhachilla prolonged beyond the upper lemma as a tiny bristle.
    Habitat
    Stony slopes and dry open places; 300–1600 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 Lebanon and Syria, through N. Africa, Arabia, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somaliaintroduced to many warm countries as an ornamental

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Arizona, Baleares, Bermuda, Bulgaria, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Colombia, Colorado, Corse, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, Gulf States, Hawaii, Italy, Jawa, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Malaya, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Namibia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oregon, Peru, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Sardegna, Sicilia, South Australia, Spain, St.Helena, Tasmania, Tennessee, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, Western Australia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Cenchrus setaceus (Forssk.) Morrone appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Schimper [2130], Ethiopia Pennisetum setaceum K000281180 isotype
    Pinard, C. [s.n.], Palestine Pennisetum setaceum K001056161
    Paris, E.G. [499], Algeria Pennisetum setaceum K000244611
    Boissier, P.E. [s.n.], Palestine Pennisetum setaceum K001056158
    Blanche, C.I. [97], Syria Pennisetum setaceum K001056159

    First published in Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 106: 129 (2010)

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Valdés-Reyna, J. Villaseñor, J.L., Encina-Domínguez, J.A. & Oritz, E. (2015). The grass family (Poaceae) in Coahuila, Mexico: diversity and distribution Botanical Sciences 93: 119-129.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
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    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
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    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
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    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
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    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/