1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Mussaenda Burm. ex L.
      1. Mussaenda arcuata Poir.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, W. Indian Ocean.

    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Shrub, scandent shrub or climber, 0.6–7(–14) m. tall; branches usually glabrous but often covered with shortish spreading hairs (2 specimens from Gabon have much longer reddish hairs), said to exude a watery to milky or sticky sap; lenticels not markedly apparent on young branches.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades coriaceous, elliptic to round, 3–16.3(–20) cm. long, 1.3–8.5(–10.8) cm. wide, apex acuminate to caudate, base cuneate, acute or rounded, with 5–7 pairs of lateral nerves, medium to dark green and shiny above and pale green beneath (dried specimens have a characteristic bronze to blackish mottling between the tertiary veins) glabrous above and glabrous or sparsely pubescent with denser hairs on the nerves beneath; tertiary nerves close together ± parallel to mid-rib; petiole 0.3–2.2 cm. long; stipules with lobe entire or divided almost to the base, 3–12 mm. long, reflexing and soon caducous revealing a line of red to brown hairs above the scar.
    Flowers
    Flowers isostylous or heterostylous, sweet-scented, in dense or lax panicles, or few-flowered panicles, terminal on short lateral branches (in climbing specimens); peduncles 0.8–4 cm. long; secondary peduncles often present; pedicels 0–5.3(–7) mm. long; bracts and bracteoles entire or rarely 2–3-lobed, 0.2–2.7 cm. long and up to 2 mm. wide.
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube turbinate to ellipsoid, 2–4 mm. long, usually glabrous but occasionally sparsely hairy; lobes dentate, linear or slightly spathulate, 0.7–1.5 cm. long, 0.25–2.5 mm. wide, curving outwards when mature, usually caducous; occasionally tending to produce an expanded creamy-white limb (most developed in specimens from N. Zambia), never as large as the leaves.
    Corolla
    Corolla with greenish yellow tube and pale to bright yellow lobes with a distinctive star of orange-red hairs at the centre which become chocolate-brown at maturity; tube 1.3–2.7 cm. long, 2.5–5 mm. wide at the top, 0.75–1.5 mm. wide at the base, glabrous, hairy all over or with the hairs concentrated into 5 vertical stripes outside, with flattened yellow hairs at the throat and between the anthers, becoming glabrous towards the base within; lobes narrowly to broadly ovate, 4–19 mm. long, 2.5–11 mm. wide, acute to apiculate at apex, shortly connate for (0–)1.5–3 mm. at base, somewhat reflexed at maturity, midrib produced to form a low ridge.
    Anthers
    Distance from the throat to the top of the anthers 0–1.6 mm. in isostylous flowers (both stigma and anthers near the throat), 0–3 mm. in short-styled flowers and 4–6 mm. in long-styled flowers.
    Pistil
    Style 1.2–2.1 cm. in long-styled and isostylous flowers and 0.75–1 cm. in short-styled flowers; arms 0–(1.3–2) mm. long; stigma entirely exserted or included, each lobe 2.2–5.2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit edible, pale green to yellow, ellipsoid or subglobose, (0.8–)1.1–2.5 cm. long, (0.6–)0.8–1.8 cm. wide, with a round whitish scar at the apex.
    Seeds
    Seeds straw-coloured to pale brown, ± rectangular or triangular in outline, 1–1.3 mm. long, slightly thickened, clearly reticulate.
    Figures
    Fig. 1/1.
    Habitat
    Grassland, bushland, open or closed forest, evergreen rain-forest; 700–1830 m.
    Distribution
    throughout tropical Africa (excluding Somalia) as far south as Angola and ZimbabweMadagascar, Mauritius and Réunion K3 K5 K7 T1 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 U3 U4
    [FWTA]

    Rubiaceae, F. N. Hepper & R. W. J. Keay. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Erect or scrambling shrub
    Flowers
    Flowers yellow with yellow-hairy centre which turns brown later
    Fruits
    Fruits orange, enlarged calyx white
    Ecology
    In forest and beside streams.
    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D.M.Bridson & B.Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:3. 2003

    Habit
    Shrub, scandent shrub or climber, 0.6–7(14) m tall; branches usually glabrous but often covered with shortish spreading hairs, said to exude a watery to milky or sticky sap.
    Leaves
    Leaf blades 3–16.3(20) × 1.3–8.5(10.8) cm, elliptic to round, acuminate to caudate at the apex, cuneate, acute or rounded at the base, with 5–7 pairs of lateral nerves, coriaceous, glabrous above and glabrous or sparsely pubescent beneath with the nerves densely hairy; petiole 0.3–2.2 cm long.
    Stipules
    Stipules 3–12 mm long, with lobe entire or divided almost to the base, reflexing and soon caducous revealing a line of red to brown hairs above the scar.
    Flowers
    Flowers isostylous or heterostylous, sweet-scented, in dense, lax or few- flowered panicles, terminal on short lateral branches (in climbing specimens); peduncles 0.8–4 cm long; secondary peduncles often present; pedicels 0–5.3(7) mm long.
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles entire or rarely 2–3 lobed, 0.2–2.7 cm long and up to 2 mm wide.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube 2–4 mm long, turbinate to ellipsoid, usually glabrous but occasionally sparsely hairy; lobes 0.7–1.5 × 0.25–2.5 mm, dentate, linear or slightly spathulate, curving outwards when mature, usually caducous; occasionally tending to produce a rudimentary creamy-white calycophyll (most developed in specimens from the Zambia N: division of the Flora Zambesiaca area), never as large as the leaves.
    Corolla
    Corolla with greenish-yellow tube and pale to bright yellow lobes with a distinctive star of orange-red hairs at the centre which become brownish-chocolate at maturity; tube 1.3–2.7 cm long, 2.5–5 mm wide at the top and 0.75–1.5 mm wide at the base, glabrous, hairy all over or with the hairs concentrated into 5 vertical stripes outside, with flattened yellow hairs at the throat and between the anthers, becoming glabrous towards the base within; lobes 4–19 × 2.5–11 mm, lanceolate to broadly ovate, acute to apiculate at apex, shortly connate for (0)1.5–3 mm.
    Anthers
    Distance from the throat to the top of the anthers 0–1.6 mm in isostylous flowers (both stigma and anthers near the throat), 0–3 mm in short- styled flowers and 4–6 mm in long-styled flowers.
    Pistil
    Style 1.2–2.1 cm in long-styled and isostylous flowers and 0.75–1 cm long in short-styled flowers; arms 0(1.3–2) mm long; stigma entirely exserted or included; lobes 2.2–5.2 mm long.
    Fruits
    Fruit edible, pale green to yellow, (0.8)1.1–2.5 × (0.6)0.8–1.8 cm, ellipsoid or subglobose, with a round whitish scar at the apex.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–1.3 mm long, straw-coloured to pale brown, ± rectangular or triangular, slightly thickened, clearly reticulated.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, Réunion, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Mussaenda arcuata Poir. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2013 Thomas, D.W. [10469], Cameroon K000745598
    Oct 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13602], Cameroon K000580085
    Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [1849], Cameroon K000518633
    Dec 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [4726], Cameroon K000746517
    Nov 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [7121], Cameroon K000109774
    Nov 1, 2001 Cable, S. [3724], Cameroon K000109778
    Nov 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [3991], Cameroon K000109773
    Nov 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1455], Cameroon K000109777
    Nov 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [2810], Cameroon K000109779
    Nov 1, 2001 Ryan, P. [260], Cameroon K000109776
    Nov 1, 2001 Biye, E. [60], Cameroon K000109772
    Nov 1, 2001 Schoenenberger, J. [64], Cameroon K000109775
    Jan 1, 1995 Cable, S. [148], Cameroon K000085967
    Jan 1, 1995 Cable, S. [399], Cameroon K000085971
    Jan 1, 1995 Cable, S. [456], Cameroon K000540823
    Jan 1, 1995 Cable, S. [350], Cameroon K000540832
    Jan 1, 1995 Faucher, P. [44], Cameroon K000085970
    Jan 1, 1995 Akogo, M. [51], Cameroon K000085972
    Dec 1, 1994 Mbani, J. M. [75], Cameroon K000085973
    Jan 1, 1992 Watts, J. [233], Cameroon K000085669
    Dawkins, H.C. [396], Uganda 13889.000
    Troupin, G. [3398], Congo, DRC 3313.000
    Troupin, G. [3436], Congo, DRC 890.000
    Dalziel, J.M. [645], Nigeria 12202.000
    Meikle, R.D. [548], Nigeria 3312.000
    Harley, R.M. [9210], Tanzania 6284.000
    Gossweiler, J. [1235], Angola K000412561 isotype
    Angus, A. [443], Zambia 13888.000
    Angus, A. [299], Zambia 4706.000
    Matonchi, R. [4508], Zambia 12201.000
    McWhirter, J. [56], Madagascar 32188.000
    McWhirter, J. [51], Madagascar 32220.000
    Bauer, P.J. [186], Cameroon 34063.000
    Ollerton, J. [72], Gabon 60305.000
    Bojer, W. [s.n.], Madagascar K000046363 isotype
    Harris, T. [24], Mozambique K000545028
    Harris, T. [74], Mozambique K000545066
    Harris, T. [135], Mozambique K000545116
    Harris, T. [468], Mozambique K000613904
    Timberlake, J. [5332], Malawi K000614678
    Timberlake, J. [5349], Malawi K000614693
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6262], Mauritius K001123463
    Telfair, C. [Cat. no. 6262], Mauritius K001123462

    First published in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl. 4: 392 (1797)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F. W. Andr. Fl. Pl. Sud. 3: 446 (incl. var. pubescens Wernham)
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 478, t 108, 5-7
    • Wernham in J. Bot. 51: 274
    • F.T.A. 3: 68
    • in Lam. Encycl. Méth. Bot. 4: 392 (1797)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Ruhsam, M in Ruhsam, M. (2005). Survey of all the Rubiaceae specimens at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hallé in Fl. Gabon 12, Rubiacées, 1: 152 (1966).
    • Hepper in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 615 (1963).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 413, fig. 71H (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 451 (1961).
    • Codd in Fl. Pl. Afr. 31, 4, t. 1231 (1956).
    • Petit in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l'État a Bruxelles 25: 157 (1955).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 446 (1952).
    • Aubrév., Fl. For. Soud.-Guin.: 478, t. 108/5–7 (1950).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 506 (1949).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 2: 334 (1947).
    • K. Krause in Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahelm 10: 603 (1929).
    • Wernham in Journal of Botany 51: 274 (1913).
    • K. Krause in Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1907-1908, 2 (Botanik) p. 314 (1911).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 1 (1): 311, fig.278 (1910).
    • K. Schum. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 379 (1895).
    • Hiern in Flora of Tropical Africa 3: 68 (1877).
    • Poir in Lam., Encycl. Méth. Bot. 4: 392 (1797).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0