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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

Type
Type from Ethiopia.
Style
Styles 2 mm long, connate at the base for c. 0.5 mm; stigmas of long-styled flowers reaching only to the tip of the anthers or to slightly beyond, stigmas of short-styled flowers reaching or nearly reaching the anther bases
Ecology
Sandy roadsides, disturbed soils, sandy soils on stream banks and woodlands; 450–1600 m.
Note
This species may be confused with O. stuhlmannii and O. atriplicifolium. O sinuatum is an annual while O. stuhlmannii is a perennial herb; in O. atriplicifolium the flowers are strongly heterostylous and the pedicels are filiform and reflexed in fruit while in O. sinuatum the pedicels are stout, c. 5 mm long and ± erect or spreading in fruit.
Distribution
Mozambique Malawi Zimbabwe Botswana Caprivi Strip Zambia BOT N, BOT SE, ZAM B, ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM E, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ T, MOZ GI, MOZ M Widespread in tropical eastern Africa from Sudan and Ethiopia southwards to Namibia and South Africa, also in Dem. Rep. Congo and Angola. Sandy roadsides, disturbed soils, sandy soils on stream banks and woodlands; 450–1600 m.
Habit
A diffuse, erect or decumbent annual herb. A diffuse, erect or decumbent annual herb
Stem
Stems green to reddish-brown, up to c. 1 m tall, branched, longitudinally striate, glabrous or pubescent. Stems green to reddish-brown, up to c. 1 m tall, branched, longitudinally striate, glabrous or pubescent
Leaves
Leaves petiolate, lamina 4–8 × 1–3 cm, ovate to ovate-elliptic or ovate-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate in outline, usually deeply incised with 1–3 rounded or acute lobes on each side, often panduriform or lyrate, narrowed to each end, midrib prominent beneath; petioles 1–2 cm long. Leaves petiolate, lamina 4–8 × 1–3 cm, ovate to ovate-elliptic or ovate-lanceolate to elliptic.lanceolate in outline, usually deeply incised with 1–3 rounded or acute lobes on each side, often panduriform or lyrate, narrowed to each end, midrib prominent beneath; petioles 1–2 cm long
Ocrea
Ocrea reddish, up to c. 5.5 mm long, truncate and fringed with setae at the apex. Ocrea reddish, up to c. 5.5 mm long, truncate and fringed with setae at the apex
Flowers
Flowers pedicellate, 2–5 in the axil of each bract, arranged in spiciform terminal or axillary racemes up to 28–45 cm long, sometimes longer; bracts up to c. 6 mm apart, obliquely truncate, acute or acuminate with a fringe of setae at the apex; pedicels of hermaphrodite flowers stout and 4–5 mm long, pedicels of male flowers filiform and withering. Flowers pedicellate, 2–5 in the axil of each bract, arranged in spiciform terminal or axillary racemes up to 28–45 cm long, sometimes longer; bracts up to c. 6 mm apart, obliquely truncate, acute or acuminate with a fringe of setae at the apex; pedicels of hermaphrodite flowers stout and 4–5 mm long, pedicels of male flowers filiform and withering Hermaphrodite flowers slightly heterostylous; perianth white or pink, 4–5-lobed; tube 1–1.5 mm long; lobes 2.5–3(4) mm long and ovate-elliptic. Filaments 2 mm long in long-styled flowers, 1.5 mm long in short-styled flowers Male flowers not seen Hermaphrodite flowers slightly heterostylous; perianth white or pink, 4–5-lobed; tube 1–1.5 mm long; lobes 2.5–3(4) mm long and ovate-elliptic. Male flowers not seen.
Male
Male flowers not seen.
Hermaphrodite
Hermaphrodite flowers slightly heterostylous; perianth white or pink, 4–5-lobed; tube 1–1.5 mm long; lobes 2.5–3(4) mm long and ovate-elliptic. Styles 2 mm long, connate at the base for c. 0.5 mm; stigmas of long-styled flowers reaching only to the tip of the anthers or to slightly beyond, stigmas of short-styled flowers reaching or nearly reaching the anther bases. Filaments 2 mm long in long-styled flowers, 1.5 mm long in short-styled flowers.
Filaments
Filaments 2 mm long in long-styled flowers, 1.5 mm long in short-styled flowers.
Pistil
Styles 2 mm long, connate at the base for c. 0.5 mm; stigmas of long-styled flowers reaching only to the tip of the anthers or to slightly beyond, stigmas of short-styled flowers reaching or nearly reaching the anther bases.
Fruits
Nut 5–7 mm long, fusiform, trigonous, pubescent or papillose, rarely glabrous, usually erect or spreading, seldom pendulous, with 3 spreading prickles 1.5–2 mm long on the angles, centrally or sometimes just below the middle, rarely with 3 smaller prickles on the faces between the angles. Nut 5–7 mm long, fusiform, trigonous, pubescent or papillose, rarely glabrous, usually erect or spreading, seldom pendulous, with 3 spreading prickles 1.5–2 mm long on the angles, centrally or sometimes just below the middle, rarely with 3 smaller prickles on the faces between the angles.

[FTEA]

Polygonaceae, R. A. Graham. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

Habit
A diffuse, decumbent or erect, weedy annual.
Stem
Stems glabrous to pubescent, green to reddish brown.
Ocrea
Ocreae reddish, up to 5.5 mm. long, truncate, usually fringed with setae, the leaf inserted in the upper half and often near the apex.
Leaves
Leaves petiolate, in outline ovate, ovate-elliptic, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, but usually deeply incised with rounded or acute lobes, often panduriform or lyrate, narrowed to each end, commonly 4 × 1.5 cm., but up to 6 × 2.7 cm., usually pustular on the undersurface, otherwise glabrous or shortly pilose on the veins.
Petiole
Petioles 1–2 cm. long.
Inflorescences
Inflorescence variably elongated, up to 28 cm. long (or more?), the stalk up to 2 mm. thick.
Bracts
Bracts up to 6 cm. apart, fringed with setae.
Pedicel
Pedicels of hermaphrodite flowers stumpy, scarcely filiform, exceeding the bracts by 0–1 (–3) mm.; those of male flowers ± filiform, withering.
Flowers
Flowers white or pink, slightly heterostylous, i.e. long-styled stigmas reaching only to the tips of the anthers or to slightly beyond, and short-styled stigmas reaching to or nearly to the anther bases (see Fig. 5/9).
Tepal
Tepals ovate-elliptic, 2.5–3 mm. long; tube 1–1.5 mm. long.
Fruits
Fruit fusiform, (1–) 2–4 to each bract, erect or spreading but scarcely pendulous, 5.0–6.5 mm. long when mature, pubescent or papillose, more rarely glabrous, with three spreading prickles 1.5–1.75 (–2) mm. long arising on the angles centrally or more often from just below the middle (rarely with 3 smaller, intervening prickles on the faces).
Habitat
Cultivated and other ground suited to weed growth; 0–2100 m.
Distribution
eastern Africa from Sudan southwards, K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Habit
Annual, erect or decumbent herb, glabrous or shortly pubescent
Stipules
Ochreae with up to c. 3 mm long setae at the margin
Leaves
Leaf-blade narrowly to broadly ovate or elliptic, usually ± deeply lobed, 2–4(–6) x 1–1.5(–2.7) cm, acute to obtuse at the apex, attenuate at the base, glabrous or shortly pubescent on veins; petiole 10–20 mm long
Inflorescences
Inflorescences 8–28 cm long; fruiting pedicels only slightly exceeding the bracts, erect or somewhat spreading
Flowers
Flowers white or pink, slightly heterostylous; perianth c. 4 mm long
Fruits
Fruits 1–4 to each bract, erect or spreading, 5–7 mm long, pubescent, papillose or glabrous, with the spreading prickles, 1.5–2 mm long, near the middle, sometimes with 3 smaller prickles as well.
Distribution
N1; S1–3; widespread in eastern Africa from Sudan and southwards.
Ecology
Altitude range 50–1350 m.
Vernacular
Cabla dured (Somali).

Native to:

Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Cape Verde, India, Mauritius

Oxygonum sinuatum (Hochst. & Steud. ex Meisn.) Dammer appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1987 Schimper [264], Ethiopia K000244040 isotype
Jan 1, 1987 Kotschy [117], Eritrea K000244042 isotype
Jan 1, 1987 Kotschy [94], Eritrea K000244043
Milne-Redhead, E. [11305], Tanzania 21945.000
Schimper [264], Ethiopia K000244041 isotype

First published in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(1a): 30 (1892)

Accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Akeroyd, J.R. (2013). Docks and Knotweeds of Britain and Ireland: 1-258. Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Graham, R.A. (1958). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygonaceae: 1-40.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Banda & Morris, Common Weeds Malawi: 112, fig. (1986). TAB. 8, fig. A.
  • Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 23: 4 (1969).
  • F.T.E.A., Polygonaceae: 34 (1958).
  • Kew Bull. 12: 159 (1957)
  • F.C.B. 1: 406, t. 39 (1948).
  • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 17: 163 (1944)
  • Burtt Davy, Fl. Pl. Ferns Transvaal, part 1: 167 (1926).
  • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 170 (1895).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2019). https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23818107.2019.1652848 epublication.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Graham, R.A. (1958). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygonaceae: 1-40.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Robyns, Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 406 (1948).
  • Dammer in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 170 (1895).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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