1. Family: Amaryllidaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Crinum L.
      1. Crinum macowanii Baker

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa, Seychelles.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Amaryllidaceae by C. Zimudzi, R.H. Archer, E.G. Kwembeya & I. Nordal

    Bulbs
    Bulb globose, up to 20 cm in diameter, with a long neck up to 25 cm long.
    Leaves
    Leaves glaucous (more rarely pure green), variable, up to 118 ×  4–22 cm, without a distinct midrib or keel, slightly to markedly undulate and scabrous on margin, most leaves necrotic apically, spreading at ground level or arcuate from a short pseudostem.
    Scape
    Scape suberect to erect, up to 54 cm long; spathe valves papery, 5.6–12.5 × 1–3.6 cm, withering early.
    Flowers
    Flowers 2–18, often scented; pedicels 0.6–2.5(6) cm long.
    Perianth
    Perianth tube greenish to brownish, curved (6)9–14 cm long; segments white with a distinct pink-coloured keel, connivent into a bell shape with the apical portion recurved, 7–12 × 2–4 cm, the inner always broader than the outer.
    Filaments
    Filaments white, declinate; anthers black, curved, 0.8–20 cm long.
    Style
    Style white, with the apical portion reddish, declinate.
    Fruits
    Fruits green, fading to a dull yellow with a thin pericarp tightly covering the seeds, distinctly beaked, 1.6–3 cm wide.
    Seeds
    Seeds with a greyish water-repellent layer outside a greenish photosynthetic layer, subglobose, smooth, variable in shape and size, floating in water.
    Distribution
    A widespread and common species from South Africa north to S Ethiopia.
    Ecology
    In grassland to dambo areas; 600–1400 m.
    Conservation
    Conservation notes: Widespread species; not threatened.
    [FTEA]

    Amaryllidaceae, Inger Nordal (University of Oslo). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

    Habit
    Bulb 10–25 cm. in diameter, often with a considerable neck up to 30 cm. long.
    Leaves
    Leaves very variable in length, 10–130 cm. at anthesis, without a distinct midrib or keel, slightly to markedly undulate and scabrous on the margin, withering back to the neck every dry season, all but a few outer ones growing out again next rainy season without an intact apex (appearing burnt or grazed), lorate, 2–10 cm. broad, the 2–3 new inner leaves narrow and erect, obtuse.
    Scape
    Scapes 1–3, 10–60 cm. long, usually contemporary with the leaves.
    Bracts
    Spathe-valves papery, withering early.
    Flowers
    Flowers 4–20, often heavily scented, subsessile or with pedicels up to 6.5 cm. long.
    Perianth
    Perianth-tube greenish to brownish crimson, curved, 7–15 cm. long; segments white, with pink to rose, dull crimson or red midrib on the back (rarely ‘albino’ with faint green midrib), broadly lanceolate to elliptic, acute to acuminate, 7–13 cm. long, 2–4 cm. broad, the inner ones always broader than the outer, together forming a bell, with apical parts reflexed at anthesis.
    Stamens
    Filaments white, declinate; anthers dark grey to black, curved, ± 1 cm. long.
    Style
    Style white, with pink distal part, declinate.
    Fruits
    Fruits green, fading to dull yellow, with thin pericarp closely investing the seeds, giving an irregular undulate surface, often distinctly beaked by the remains of the perianth-tube.
    Seeds
    Seeds greenish, covered with a silvery to grey water repellent membrane making them very smooth, (5–) 20–80, variable in shape and size, often flattened, largest diameter rarely more than 2 cm., viviparous.
    Figures
    Fig. 3.
    Habitat
    Grassland on heavy black soil, deciduous woodland or montane grassland, often in disturbed places (pastures, roadsides, abandoned cultivations); 500–2700 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T4 T6 T7 T8 U1 U3

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Cape Provinces, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Seychelles, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Crinum macowanii Baker appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Ash, J. [1620], Ethiopia 35895.000
    Ash, J. [821], Ethiopia 36406.000
    Wilkin, P. [714], Zimbabwe 59257.000
    MacOwan [2122], South Africa K000365418 lectotype
    MacOwan [2122], South Africa K000365419 lectotype
    Archibald, E.E.A. [7513], South Africa K000365417 isotype
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7880], Tanzania Crinum pedicellatum 39141.000
    Uknown from sheet. [s.n.] Crinum johnstonii K000365414
    Uknown from sheet. [s.n.] Crinum johnstonii K000365413

    First published in Gard. Chron., n.s., 9: 298 (1878)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2008). Flora Zambesiaca 13(1): 1-140. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zimudzi, C., Archer, R.H., Kwembeya, E.G. & Nordal, I. (2006). Synopsis of Amaryllidaceae from the Flora Zambesiaca area Kirkia. The Zimbabwe Journal of Botany 18: 151-168.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Nordal, I. (1982). Amaryllidaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-30.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • ―Archer & Condy in Fl. Pl. Afr. 56: 30 (1999).
    • ―Lehmiller in Herbertia 52: 62 (1997).
    • in F.T.E.A., Amaryllidaceae: 18 (1982).
    • ―Nordal in Norw. J. Bot. 24: 182, fig.6 (1977);
    • in Bothalia 11: 46 (1973).
    • ―Verdoorn in J.S. Afr. Bot. 22: 79 (1956);
    • ―Uphof in Herbertia 9: 80 (1942).
    • in F.C. 6: 202 (1896).
    • Handb. Amaryllid.: 94 (1888);
    • in Gard. Chron. 9: 298 (1878);
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Nordal in Norw. Journ. Bot. 24: 182, fig. 6 (1977).
    • Verdoorn in Bothalia 11: 46 (1973).
    • Bak. in Gard. Chron .1878 (1): 298 (1878).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0