Weigend, M. (2009). Neotropical Grossulariaceae.
Always shrubs, sometimes lianescent (only South America) and very rarely cushion-forming (only Peru), bark often exfoliating . Plants usually glandular and/or pubescent , glands various, yellow and peltate , or brownish and subspherical, or long-stalked and clear. Leaves alternate throughout, simple , mostly widely ovate with 3 lobes and central lobe largest, rarely 5-7- lobed margin or entire , lobes lobulate and serrate , basa cuneate to deeply cordate ; stipulate with brownish, membranacous stipules on both sides of the petiole at base, these sometimes absent on leaves on old (flowering) branches. Inflorescences terminal , racemose, sometimes reduced to 1-2 flowers; inflorescence bracteose, pairs of bracteoles usually present on pedicels. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, plants hermaphrodite or dioecious , (4-)5- merous , actinomorphic ; hypanthium (sepals + filaments + petals) always present, short or very long, calyx lobes well developed, mostly larger than petals and conspicuously coloured (yellow, red, white, orange, pink, brownish-green), entire , usually oblong - acuminate ; petals small, ovate or flabellate, coloured like petals or (more rarely) contrasting; male flowers with 5 antesepalous stamens, filaments usually short and broad, ovary slightly smaller than in female flowers, with abortive ovules; female flowers with 5 smaller stamens, these superficially fully developed but with undifferentiated archespor, ovary syncarpous, hypogynous, of 2 carpels, unilocular, crowned by 2 stylodia, sometimes on very short style , with stigmatic surfaces. Nectary disc always present and clothing the entire inside of receptacle . Fruit a yellow, red, white, orange or black berry , often covered with various trichomes, glands , sometimes spines, sometimes glabrous , crowned with persistent flower remnants, calyx not accrescent , few- to many-seeded.
- General Description
Notes on delimitation
- Grossulariaceae are now restricted to the genus Ribes L. and is considered as sister to herbaceous saxifrages (Saxifragaceae s.str.).
- It is readily differentiated from the former on the basis of its consistently shrubby habit and berry-fruits (vs. herbaceous with dry fruits).
- Only Ribes L.
- All species are native, and many species are very narrowly endemic.
- Ribesrubrum L. (red currant), R. nigrum L. (black currant) and various cultivars of subg. Grossularia Mill. (gooseberries) are occasionally cultivated in temperate South America and may be present as species.
- Ribes is important for browsing by Andean animals; birds avidly devour its fruit and, due to its dense branching, it provides excellent nesting sites for birds.
- The fruits of South American species are apparently all edible, but usually insipid.
- Ribes cucullatum Hook. & Arn. reaches elevations of >4,700 m in the Cordillera Blanca and is one of the highest-growing woody plants in this area.
- Many species are very narrowly endemic, some only known from the type collection.
- Due to deforestation and overgrazing some species are on the brink of extinction (e.g., R. lehmannii Jancz. in Ecuador, R. contumazensis Weigend and R. ovalifolium Jancz. in Peru).
- Some general comments on Ribes in tropical America: all species South of Costa Rica (to Patagonia) are dioecious.
- Fruits are the characteristic inferior berries (gooseberries, red currants) with the nearly complete, albeit completely dry, flower at the apex.
- Individual seeds are covered with a gelatinous sarcotesta.
Distribution in the Neotropics
- Grossulariacease comprise 1 genus and <200 species. It is a temperate to Mediterranean group and tropical representatives are restricted to montane and alpine habitats.
- A large proportion of the species is distributed over the Northern Hemisphere with centres of diversity in E Asia and W North America including N Mexico.
- Only three species are present on the high mountains of tropical Central America.
- In South America only two, apparently unrelated, dioecious clades are present: sect. Parilla with ca. 10 spp. in temperate South America and sect. Andina with >30 spp. from the Andes of Argentina to Costa Rica.
Distinguishing characters (always present)
- Shrubs with often 3-lobed, usually pubescent and/or glandular leaves, sometimes aromatic.
- Flowers in racemes, small, hypanthium usually present.
- Inferior ovary with 2 carpels, 2 stylodia present.
- Fruit a berry crowned with persistentflower remnants.
- Seeds with gelatinous exotesta and dense, brown/black endotesta.
- Ribes cannot be confused.
Berger, A. (1924). A taxonomic review of currants and gooseberries. New York Agric. Exp. Sta. Techn. Bull. 109: 3-118.
Catling, P.M., Dumouchel, L., & Brownell, V.R. (1998). Pollination of the Miccosukee Gooseberry (Ribes echinellum). Castanea 63: 402-407.
Engler, A. (1890). Saxifragaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K. (eds) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien III: 42-93. Leipzig: Engelmann.
Janczewski, E. (1907). Monographie de Groseillier. Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 35/13: 199-517.
Rapoport, E.H., Ladio, A.H., Sanz, E.H. (1999). Plantas comestibles de la Patagonia andina. Bariloche: Imaginaria.
Soltis, D.E., Kuzoff, R.K., Mort, M.E., Zanis, M., Fishbein, M., Hufford, L., Koontz, J., & Arroyo, M.K. (2001). Elucidating deep-level phylogenetic relationships in Saxifragaceae using sequences for six chloroplastic and nuclear DNA regions. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 669-693. Weigend, M. (2002). Observations on the Biogeography of the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone in Northern Peru. In: K. Young, C. Ulloa U., J. L. Luteyn & S. Knapp (eds.), Plant Evolution and Endemism in Andean South America. Botanical Review 68: 38-54.
Weigend, M. (2003). Grossulariaceae. In: N. Smith, S.A. Mori, A. Henderson, D.W. Stevenson S.V. & Heald (eds.), Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.: 174-176.
Weigend, M. (2004). Additional Observations on the Biogeography of the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone in Northern Peru - Defining the South-Eastern limits. Revista Peruana de Biologia 11(2): 127-134.
Weigend, M. (2006). Grossulariaceae. In: Kubitzki, K.: The Families and Genera of the Vascular Plants IX: 168-176.
Weigend, M. & Binder, M. (2001). Ribes viscosum Ruiz & Pavon (Grossulariaceae), una especie ecológicamente importante de los Andes del Perú y su sinonimia. Arnaldoa 8(1): 39-44. Weigend, M. & Binder, M. (2001). A revision of the genus Ribes (Grossulariaceae) in Bolivia. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik und Pflanzengeographie 123: 111-134.
Weigend, M. & Binder, M. (2002). Three new species of Ribes (Grossulariaceae) from Central and South America. Systematic Botany 26: 727-737.
Weigend, M., & Rodriguez-R., E. F. (2006). Ribes amazonica spec. nov., la primera Ribes (Grossulariaceae) Peruana con inflorescencias erguidas. Arnaldoa 12(1-2): 42-47. Weigend, M., Cano E., A. & Rodriguez-R., E. F. (2005). New species and new records of the flora of the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone: Endemics and biogeographic limits. In: Weigend, M., E. Rodriguez R. & C. Arana (eds.), Bosques relictos del NO de Perú y SO de Ecuador. Revista Peruana de Biologia 12(2): 249-274.Weigend, M., Motley, T. & Mohr, O. (2002). Phylogeny and classification in the genus Ribes (Grossulariaceae) based on 5S-NTS sequences and morphological and anatomical data. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik und Pflanzengeographie 124: 163-182.
Weigend, M., N. Dostert & E. F. Rodríguez-R. (2007). 9 Bosques relictos de los Andes peruanos: Perspectivas económicas. Pp. 130-145 in Moraes R., M., B. Øllgaard, L. P. Kvist, F. Borchsenius & H. Balslev (eds.) Botánica Económica de los Andes Centrales. Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Plural Editores, La Paz.
First published in Fl. Franc. [de Candolle & Lamarck], ed. 3. ed. 3, 4(2): 405. 1805 [17 Sep 1805] (as "Grossulariae") (1805)
- APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385
Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.