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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.

[FZ]

Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals c. 7 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube hirsute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps 8–12 (normally 10), usually c. 7 mm. long, somewhat strigose and birostrate at the apex; awns 3–4 (6) mm. long, exceeding the calyx, erect, finely retrorse-hispid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 2 × 2 mm., glabrous except for some hairs around the hilum.
Morphology General Habit
Erect annual or perhaps sometimes perennial suffrutex 0·5–1 m. tall; stems stellate-pubescent and usually with additional patent simple hairs up to 3 mm. long, ultimately glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 3–7 × 1–4 cm., broadly ovate- to suborbicular-subcordate, apex usually obtuse to rounded less often acute to acuminate, margin irregularly crenate, base somewhat cordate to rounded, ± densely stellate-pubescent on both surfaces, lower surface paler and with a denser indumentum of longer hairs, upper surface sometimes glabrescent; petiole 1–3 cm. long, stellate-tomentose and often with additional longer patent hairs; stipules c. 5 mm. long, filiform, weak.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bright yellow, fasciculate, mainly towards the tips of the branches or, on terminal and lateral branches bearing small leaves, in a subspicate inflorescence, or sometimes solitary in the axils of the lower leaves; pedicels 4–20 mm. long, the longer ones articulated near the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4–6 × 8 mm., campanulate-cupuliform, densely and softly tomentose, lobed to about the middle; lobes triangular.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Morphology General Habit
Herb or subshrub.
Conservation
Least concern.
Ecology
Alt. 10 - 2230 m.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.

[FWTA]

Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
An erect, softly downy perennial, up to 5 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Bright yellow flowers
Ecology
Common in waste and sandy places.

[FTEA]

Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Type
Type: India, Linn. Herb. 866-12 (LINN, lecto.) (microfiche!)
Morphology General Habit
Erect annual or perennial herb or shrublet 0.3–1.5 m tall.
Morphology Stem
Stems shortly stellatepubescent, with or without long simple hairs, eventually glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves broadly ovate to ± round, 3–8 × 1–8 cm, acute to rounded at the apex, ± cordate to rounded at base, stellate-pubescent above, thinly to thickly velvety tomentose beneath; venation impressed above; petiole 1–5.5 cm long; stipules filiform, 2.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers fasciculate, mostly at tips of branches or forming panicles; lower ones sometimes solitary and axillary; pedicel 0.4–2 cm long, usually jointed near apex; calyx 4–8 mm long, lobed to about middle, densely tomentose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, orange, buff-apricot or pinkish cream, sometimes darker in middle; petals 7–12 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal column hairy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps 8–10(–12), 3–5 mm long, the lower part of outer face and sides reticulate, with two retrorsely barbed awns 3–6 mm long.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual or perennial herb or subshrub, up to c. 1 m tall; stems densely and softly tomentose to pubescent with spreading hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with 1–5.5 cm long petiole; blade ovate to suborbicular, 2–8 x 1.5–8 cm, cordate to truncate at the base, acute to rounded at the apex, with dentate margins, pubescent to tomentose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in clusters, mostly towards end of lateral branches or forming terminal panicles; pedicels up to 25 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5–8 mm long, enclosing the ripe mericarp
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 8–12 mm long, yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps 8–10, 3–5 mm long and with a pair of 2.5–6 mm long retrorsely barbed awns; lower part of back and sides reticulately sculptured.
Distribution
S1, 2 pantropical.
Ecology
Altitude range 5–230 m.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 10 - 2230 m.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

>

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, Howland-Baker Is., India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya

Introduced into:

Angola, Ascension, Botswana, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, New Caledonia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Réunion, Seychelles, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Flannel Weed, Heartleaf sida
Spanish
Escobadura calentana, yerba amarga, malva de castilla, escobilla.

Sida cordifolia L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [184], Cape Verde K001134090
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [198], Cape Verde K001134091
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [197], Cape Verde K001134088
Dec 1, 2007 Phillipson, P.B. [3565], Madagascar K000438359
Apr 27, 2004 Lemos, J.R. [180], Brazil K001217071
Jan 1, 2000 Rovirosa, J.N. [749], Mexico K001105671
Jan 1, 1995 Harley, R.M. [21399], Brazil K001217087
Jan 1, 1995 Marcon, A.B. [16], Brazil K001214737
Jul 19, 1975 Duarte, L. [441], Brazil K001214752
Harley, R.M. [15366], Brazil K001217090
Harley, R.M. [16230], Brazil K001217091
Harley, R.M. [21169], Brazil K001214726
Harley, R.M. [21399], Brazil K001214730
Harley, R.M. [19098], Brazil K001214756
Trail, J.W.H. [47], Brazil K001214732
Lindeman, J.C. [5393], Brazil K001214745
Ratter, J.A. [3052], Brazil K001214750
Pirani, J.R. [2085], Brazil K001217092
Coradin, L. [6329], Brazil K001217075
Coradin, L. [5745], Brazil K001217076
Coradin, L. [6312], Brazil K001217077
Coradin, L. [6583], Brazil K001217078
Coradin, L. [6049], Brazil K001217079
Coradin, L. [s.n.], Brazil K001217080
Pinheiro, R.S. [396], Brazil K001214751
Arbo, M.M. [7297], Brazil K001217086
Arbo, M.M. [3604], Brazil K001214755
Irwin, H.S. [31533], Brazil K001217313
Irwin, H.S. [8647], Brazil K001214735
Irwin, H.S. [21056], Brazil K001214753
Ule, E. [8219], Brazil K001217312
Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil K001217095
Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil K001217096
Andrade, K. [17], Brazil K001214736
Eiten, G. [10659], Brazil K001217089
Eiten, G. [5190], Brazil K001214746
Moricand [s.n.], Brazil K001214749
Bolland, B.G.C. [s.n.], Brazil K001214757
Silva, G.P. [2445], Brazil K001214727
Anderson, W.R. [6969], Brazil K001217315
Kawasaki, M.L. [6583], Brazil K001214741
Kawasaki, M.L. [6583], Brazil K001214742
Pickersgill, B. [72-146], Brazil K001217081
Silva, L.A.M. [2316], Brazil K001217083
Alcoforado Filho, F.G. [305], Brazil K001217073
Esteves, G.L. [5912], Brazil K001214743
Lyra-Lemos, R.P. [1491], Brazil K001217316
Hohenacker, R.F. [260], India K001214738
Riedel [2023], Brazil K001214731
Krukoff, B.A. [1232], Brazil K001214733
Krukoff, B.A. [1232], Brazil K001214734
Gaumer, G.F. [2193], Mexico K001105153
Gaumer, G.F. [2193], Mexico K001105152
Dusén, P. [9688], Brazil K001214758
Gentry, H.S. [1276], Mexico K001105154
Teijsmann, J.E. [10804], Indonesia K000659349 Unknown type material
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1849], Myanmar K001114399
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1849], Myanmar K001114400
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1849], India K001114401
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1849], India K001114402
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1849], Nepal K001114406
Parodi [31], Brazil K001217070
Hoehne, W. [12311], Brazil K001217088
Duarte, L. [308], Brazil K001214728
Tschá, M. [29], Brazil K001214744
Nascimento, M.S.B. [126], Brazil K001217074
Nascimento, M.S.B. [226], Brazil K001217084
Fryxell, P.A. [3700], Mexico K001105155
Prance, G.T. [14109], Brazil K001217310
Prance, G.T. [10863], Brazil K001214747
Prance, G.T. [14362], Brazil K001214748
Gwynne-Vaughan, D.T. [46], Brazil K001214759
Hill, S.R. [13135], Brazil K001217082
Mimura, I. [275], Brazil K001217314
Santos, R.S. [s.n.], Brazil K001217309
Palmer, E. [1003], Mexico K001105150
Glaziou, A. [13551], Brazil K001217072
Jangoux, J. [319], Brazil K001217085
Miers [3412], Brazil K001217093
Miers [3412], Brazil K001217094
Gardner [1464], Brazil K001217097
Gardner [1244], Brazil K001217098
Gardner [2400], Brazil K001217100
Gardner [2400], Brazil K001214740
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1849] K001114403
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1849], India K001114404
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1849], India K001114405
s.coll. [380b], Brazil K001217311
s.coll. [1315], Brazil K001214739
Burchell [4211], Brazil K001217317
Burchell [2595], Brazil K001217318
Burchell [10015], Brazil K001217319
Burchell [8653], Brazil K001214760
Burchell [8653], Brazil K001214761
Martius [399], Brazil K001217099
Martius [1006], Brazil K001217101

First published in Sp. Pl.: 684 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Chayamarit, K. & Balslev, H. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Thailand 14(2): 185-358. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Xuyen, D.T. (2013). A synopsis of tribe Abutileae from Vietnam Thai Journal of Botany 5: 143-169.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
  • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
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Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 57.
  • —F.T.A. 1: 181

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Xuyen, D.T. (2013). A synopsis of tribe Abutileae from Vietnam Thai Journal of Botany 5: 143-169.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Christophersen, E. (1927). Vegetation of Pacific equatorial islands Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 44: 1-79.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Thulin, Fl. Somalia 2: 80, fig. 47A (1999).
  • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 11: 358 (1997)
  • Sivarajan & Pradeep, Malv. S. Pen. India: 256, fig. 93 (1996)
  • Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 2 (2): 250, fig. 82.26.7 (1995)
  • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 100 (1994)
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 79, fig. 300 (1987)
  • Abedin, Fl. W. Pak. 130: 83, fig. 19, C–E (1979)
  • Blumea 14: 199 (1966)
  • F.C.B. 10: 169 (1963)
  • F.Z. 1: 483 (1961)
  • Keay, F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 1(2): 339 (1958)
  • T.T.C.L.: 306 (1949)
  • Rev. Mus. de la Plata, Bot. 6: 184, fig. 37, 3 A–E, t. 31 (1944)
  • Exell & Mendonça, C.F.A. 1: 149 (1937)
  • F.T.A. 1: 181 (1868)
  • Sp. Pl.: 684 (1753)

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
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Kew Science Photographs
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Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
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