1. Family: Loranthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Tapinanthus (Blume) Rchb.
      1. Tapinanthus dependens (Engl.) Danser

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to N. Botswana.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Type from Angola.
    Stem
    Stems spreading then pendent to 1–3 m, glabrous, iron-grey, densely lenticellate
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly opposite; petiole 5–12 mm long; lamina coriaceous, dull green, 5–21 × 0.7–5 cm, linear-lanceolate to elliptic.lanceolate, acute to obtuse at apex, generally cuneate or attenuate at base, sometimes glandular-hairy at earliest stage of unfolding, with 4–6 pairs of lateral nerves, several lower ones strongly ascending Leaves mostly opposite; petiole 5–12 mm long; lamina coriaceous, dull green, 5–21 × 0.7–5 cm, linear-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, acute to obtuse at apex, generally cuneate or attenuate at base, sometimes glandular-hairy at earliest stage of unfolding, with 4–6 pairs of lateral nerves, several lower ones strongly ascending.
    Inflorescences
    Umbels several per axil and at older nodes, 2–4-flowered; peduncle 1–5 mm long; pedicels in sockets, 0–2 mm long; bract 2–3 mm long, cupular, with small triangular limb Umbels several per axil and at older nodes, 2–4-flowered; peduncle 1–5 mm long; pedicels in sockets, 0–2 mm long; bract 2–3 mm long, cupular, with small triangular limb.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle 1.5–2 mm long; calyx 2–4 mm long, cupular, truncate or erose, split by expanding corolla-base Receptacle 1.5–2 mm long.
    Corolla
    Corolla tube 3–4 cm long, pink outside, generally spotted white, redder along filament lines inside, head of bud greenish-white, darkening, lobes green to black inside; bud heads oblong-ellipsoid, rounded to truncate, 5-angular, slightly ribbed, lobe tips sometimes protruded as bosses or points up to 1 mm long; basal swelling 4–10 × 3–5 mm, ellipsoid-obovoid, tube constricted for 3–5 mm above; lobes 9–10 mm long, reflexed, the upper expanded part 4–5 × 1–1.5 mm Corolla tube 3–4 cm long, pink outside, generally spotted white, redder along filament lines inside, head of bud greenish-white, darkening, lobes green to black inside; bud heads oblong-ellipsoid, rounded to truncate, 5-angular, slightly ribbed, lobe tips sometimes protruded as bosses or points up to 1 mm long; basal swelling 4–10 × 3–5 mm, ellipsoid-obovoid, tube constricted for 3–5 mm above; lobes 9–10 mm long, reflexed, the upper expanded part 4–5 × 1–1.5 mm.
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments red; tooth 0.5–0.7 mm long; anthers 2.5–3 mm long Stamen filaments red; tooth 0.5–0.7 mm long; anthers 2.5–3 mm long.
    Style
    Style with neck 2.5–3 mm long; stigma 0.7–0.8 mm across, capitate
    Fruits
    Berry red, 10–12 × 6–8 mm, oblong-ellipsoid, with persistent calyx. Berry red, 10–12 × 6–8 mm, oblong-ellipsoid, with persistent calyx.
    Ecology
    In miombo woodland; from near coast to 1800 m; almost always on Brachystegia or Julbernardia, flowering in most months, but mainly in dry season from March to October.
    Note
    There is also considerable variation in the colour of the flowers. The type was described as having blood-red flowers; generally, however, they are pink, but the prominence of white spots seems most noticeable in the central part of the range (T. guttatus). Fire-adapted forms have been recorded in southern Tanzania, with short erect shoots and brittle glaucous leaves, see Polhill & Wiens, loc. cit. (1999). In its typical form T. dependens from Angola and westernmost Zambia has long pendent stems, with very narrow leaves and corolla buds bearing conspicuous points on the head, and comparable forms have been described from Mozambique as L. gomesii. In the middle part of the range the buds are normally naked or with very small bosses, and the leaves are more variable, but all transitions occur and speciation is probably still incipient. See also note under T. forbesii, particularly if collected on Uapaca.
    Distribution
    BOT N, ZAM B, ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM E, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM C, ZIM E, MAL N, MAL C, MOZ N, MOZ M, MOZ S, MOZ GI Botswana Zambia Mozambique Malawi Also in Angola, southern Dem. Rep. Congo and Tanzania. Zimbabwe
    Habit
    Stems spreading then pendent to 1–3 m, glabrous, iron-grey, densely lenticellate.
    Calyx
    Calyx 2–4 mm long, cupular, truncate or erose, split by expanding corolla-base.
    Pistil
    Style with neck 2.5–3 mm long; stigma 0.7–0.8 mm across, capitate.
    [FTEA]

    Loranthaceae, Polhill & D. Wiens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1999

    Habit
    Stems spreading then pendent to 1–3 m. long, glabrous, iron-grey, densely lenticellate.
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly opposite; petiole 5–12 mm. long; lamina coriaceous, dull green, linear-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, 5–21 cm. long, 0.7–5 cm. wide, acute to obtuse at the apex, generally cuneate or attenuate at the base, sometimes glandular-hairy at earliest stage of unfolding, with 4–6 pairs of lateral nerves, several lower ones strongly ascending.
    Inflorescences
    Umbels several per axil and at older nodes, 2–4-flowered; peduncle 1–5 mm. long; pedicels in sockets, 0–2 mm. long; bract cupular, with small triangular limb, 2–3 mm. long.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle obconic, 1.5–2 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx cupular, 2–4 mm. long, truncate or erose, split by expanding corolla-base.
    Corolla
    Corolla-tube 3–4 cm. long, pink to crimson outside, generally spotted white, redder along filament-lines inside, head of bud greenish white, darkening, lobes green to black inside; bud-heads oblong-ellipsoid, rounded to truncate, 5-angular, slightly ribbed, lobe-tips sometimes protruding as bosses or points up to 1 mm. long; basal swelling ellipsoid-obovoid, 4–10 mm. long, 3–5 mm. in diameter, the tube constricted for 3–5 mm. above; lobes 9–10 mm. long, reflexed, the upper expanded part 4–5 mm. long, 1–1.5 mm. wide.
    Stamens
    Stamens red; tooth 0.5–0.7 mm. long; anthers 2.5–3 mm. long.
    Pistil
    Style with a neck 2.5–3 mm. long; stigma capitate, 0.7–0.8 mm. across.
    Fruits
    Berry red, oblong-ellipsoid, with persistent calyx, 10–12 mm. long, 6–8 mm. in diameter.
    Figures
    Fig. 11/3–8 (p. 76).
    Habitat
    Brachystegia woodland, generally on Brachystegia or Julbernardia, but with local races developing in transition to mixed woodland (see note); 900–1600 m.
    Distribution
    T3 T4 T5 T7 T8

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Tapinanthus dependens (Engl.) Danser appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1958 Welwitsch [4851], Angola K000406945 Unknown type material
    Gomes, A. [1664], Mozambique K000406947 isotype
    Gomes, A. [1664], Mozambique K000406948
    Bidgood, S. [5663], Tanzania K000468761
    Rogers, F.A. [8320], Zambia K000406946 holotype
    Milne-Redhead, E. [3586], Zambia Loranthus dependens 23455.000
    Cruse, A.W. [136A], Zambia Loranthus dependens 23456.000

    First published in Verh. Kon. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2, 29(6): 110 (1933)

    Accepted by

    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Polhill, R.M. & Wiens, D. (1998). Mistletoes of Africa: 1-370. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.E.A., Loranthaceae: 74, fig. 11/3–8 (1999). TAB. 35, fig. A.
    • Polhill & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 192, photo. 78, fig. 17C (1998)
    • Verh. K. Akad. Wet., sect. 2, 29, 6: 110 (1933).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Polh. & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 192, photo. 78, fig. 17C (1998).
    • Danser in Verh. K. Akad. Wet., sect. 2, 29(6): 110 (1933).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0