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This species is accepted, and its native range is Central African Republic to Eritrea and S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent, Christmas Island to SW. Pacific.
Ruellia prostrata Poir.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Prostrate ascending or erect annual to perennial herb, up to 25–40 cm tall or more
Morphology Stem
Stems green to greyish green with a sparse to fairly dense indumentum of up to 3 mm long irregularly spreading hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades lanceolate to broadly ovate, up to 26–65 x 10–55 mm, sparsely pubescent with somewhat antrorse up to 2 mm long hairs along veins and margins, apex obtuse or acute, base shortly attenuate; petiole up to 4–15 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers single at upper nodes on peduncles c. 1 mm long; bracteoles leaf-like, up to 10–15 x 4–11 mm with petiole up to c. 2–4 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes narrowly triangular-subulate, often with a prominent hyaline margin, densely pubescent with 0.3–1 mm long somewhat antrorse hairs, up to 6–15 x 1 mm at flowering, slightly enlarged in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla mauve to deep blue, up to c. 20–35 mm long; tube narrowly funnel-shaped, 13–22 mm long; lobes free from each other for up to 6–10 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers c. 2.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule elongate and slender, c. 12–16-seeded, 16–22 mm long, finely pubescent with appressed 0.1–0.3 mm long hairs.
Distribution
N1, 2; S1, 3 Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan and south to South Africa, also on the Arabian Peninsula and eastwards to southern Asia and the Pacific Island.
Ecology
Altitude range 25–1650 m.
Vernacular
Arcut (Somali).
Note
As they agree with R. prostrata in capsule shape and indumentum, they are here provisionally included in this variable species, but revision of the whole complex seems necessary before any clear conclusion regarding their status can be drawn. Prostrate-ascending, narrow-leaved forms have been treated as R. sudanica (Schweinf.) Lindau

[FTEA]

Acanthaceae (part 2), Kaj Vollesen. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Type
Type: India, Dupuis s.n. (P, holo.)
Morphology General Habit
Erect to decumbent perennial herb to 50 cm tall with several stems from woody rootstock or erect to scrambling subshrub to 1.5 m tall; young stems subglabrous to densely puberulous, pubescent or pilose with broad glossy straight or curly spreading or upwardly directed non-glandular hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with petiole (0–)3–20(–30) mm long; lamina lanceolate to broadly ovate or broadly elliptic, largest (3–)4–10(–14) × (0.5–)1–6(–7) cm, apex acute to rounded, base attenuate to truncate, subglabrous to pubescent, densest along veins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary or in 2–3-flowered axillary cymes; pedicels 1–2.5 mm long, glabrous to puberulous; bracteoles (bracts in cymes) lanceolate to broadly ovate, 7–23 × 2–16 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx (6–)9–23(–27) mm long, divided to 1–3 mm from base, with filiform pubescent- to pilose-ciliate lobes with hairs to 2 mm long, otherwise glabrous to puberulous. Corolla falling early in the morning, white to mauve or purple; tube 14–28 mm long of which the basal cylindric part 4–10 mm and the throat 11–21 mm; lobes 6–16 × 5–14 mm, elliptic or broadly so with entire to crenate-dentate edge. Stamens included in throat, didynamous, anthers not or slightly overlapping; filaments fused for 1–2 mm at base, free parts 2–4 and 5–8 mm long; anthers 1.5–3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary densely puberulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Ventral stigma lobe 1–2 × ± 0.5 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule narrowly oblanceolate to clavate, puberulous to sericeous (very rarely glabrous), (13–)15–24 mm long, (6–)8–16-seeded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed ovoid to orbicular, grey to brown, 3–4 × 3–4 mm
Figures
Fig. 31, 10–11, p206
Ecology
In a wide variety of grassland, bushland and woodland on an equally wide variety of soil types; near sea level to 1500 m
Note
Burtt 1134, Tanzania, Kirangi, Mburi has a glabrous capsule but seems from other characters to be R. prostrata. For the moment it is best kept in this species. C.B.Clarke in F.T.A. expresses some doubt as to whether the type specimen of R. prostrata is distinct from R. patula. It is however apparent that the Indian material of R. prostrata generally has a shorter calyx than the East African material. But the shape of the calyx lobes and calyx indumentum is still distinct. A many-formed species which may eventually prove to contain several infra-specific taxa, but extensive field studies will be needed to confirm this. All plants under this species are linked by the filiform calyx lobes and the hairy capsule. The leaves are generally larger and more acute than in R. patula.
Distribution
Flora districts: T1 T2 T3 T4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K 7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Range: Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa; Yemen, Oman, India, Sri Lanka, Christmas Island, New Guinea, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Samoa; possibly introduced in SE Asia

Native to:

Bangladesh, Botswana, Cabinda, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Christmas I., Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mozambique, Namibia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Vanuatu, Wallis-Futuna Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Assam, Cook Is., Guyana, Hawaii, Tokelau-Manihiki

Ruellia prostrata Poir. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2010 Jitmau [397], Irian Jaya K000611217
Jan 1, 2010 Binham [13649], Zambia K000546011
May 1, 2007 Simon Laizer, G. [1506], Tanzania K000438398
Schweinfurth, G. [131], Sudan K000393975
Harris, T. [130], Mozambique K000449705
Barbosa, G. [10129], Angola K001009377
de Menezes, A. [137], Angola K001009376
Monteiro [s.n.], Angola K001009378
Monteiro [s.n.], Angola K001009379
Kolberg, H. [HK1483], Namibia K000612925
Harris, T. [130], Mozambique K000545112

First published in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl. 6: 349 (1804)

Accepted by

  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Malik, K.A. & Ghafoor, A. (1988). Flora of Pakistan 188: 1-79. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Tanaka, N. & al. (2020). Vascular plants collected from Eastern Provinces, the Solomon islands Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series B (Botany) 46: 145-175.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Vollesen, K. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Acanthaceae(1): 1-285.
  • Vollesen, K. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(5): 1-184. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Malik, K.A. & Ghafoor, A. (1988). Flora of Pakistan 188: 1-79. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Tanaka, N. & al. (2020). Vascular plants collected from Eastern Provinces, the Solomon islands Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series B (Botany) 46: 145-175.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tisserant, C. (1950). Catalogue de la flore de l'Oubangui-Chari Mémoires de l'Institut d'Études Centrafricaines 2: 1-165.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Vollesen, K. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(5): 1-184. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by M. Hedrén [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Binns, Checklist Herb. Fl. Malawi: 15 (1968)
  • Biol. Skr. 51(2): 453 (2005)
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 395 (1987)
  • E.P.A.: 939 (1964)
  • Encycl. Meth. 6: 349 (1804)
  • F.E.E. 5: 395 (2006)
  • F.T.A. 5: 46 (1899)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 395 (2006).
  • J.L.S. 7: 24 (1863)
  • Lebrun & Stork, Enum. Pl. Afr. Trop. 4: 501 (1997)
  • Opera Bot. 59: 81 (1980)
  • Symb. Bot. Ups. 29(3): 162 (1991)
  • U.K.W.F., ed. 2: 270 (1994)
  • U.K.W.F.: 589 (1974)

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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