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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa to Indian Subcontinent to Indo-China.
Ruellia patula Jacq.

[FTEA]

Acanthaceae (part 2), Kaj Vollesen. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Type
Type: Cult. in Hort. Vienna from seeds from India, probably not preserved
Morphology General Habit
Perennial or shrubby herb or subshrub; stems to 0.6(–1) m long, erect to trailing, when young subglabrous to densely puberulous, pubescent or pilose, sometimes with stalked capitate glands
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with petiole 2–32 mm long; lamina ovate to elliptic or narrowly so (rarely lanceolate), largest 1–6 × 0.5–3.7 cm, apex acute to rounded (rarely retuse), base cuneate to truncate, sparsely to densely puberulous to pubescent (rarely subglabrous), densest along veins, sometimes with scattered capitate glands. Flowers solitary or in 3(–5)-flowered axillary cymes; peduncles in cymes 1–6(–12) mm long; pedicels 0–2(–5) mm long, glabrous to puberulous; bracteoles (bracts in cymes) ovate-elliptic or narrowly so, 7–18 × 3–8 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3–8(–9) mm long, divided to 1–2 mm from base, uniformly puberulous or with ciliate lobes and midribs or glabrous; lobes narrowly triangular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla falling early in the morning, white to mauve or purple; tube (10–)12–34 mm long of which the basal cylindric part 3–12(–20) mm and the throat (7–)9–19 mm long; lobes 4–15 × 3–15 mm, ovate-elliptic or broadly so with entire to crenate-dentate margin. Stamens included in throat (rarely slightly exserted), didynamous, anthers not or slightly overlapping; filaments fused for 1–3 mm at base, free parts 2–5 and 3–7 mm long; anthers 1.5–2.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Ventral stigma lobe 1–1.5 × ± 0.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule clavate, glabrous, 11–20(–22) mm long, (4–)6–14(–16)-seeded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed broadly ellipsoid to circular, dark brown, 3–4.5 × 2.5–4.5 mm
Figures
Fig 31: 1-9, p206
Ecology
In a wide range of grassland, bushland, woodland, forest margins and riverine forest, persisting in disturbed areas, on an equally wide range of soil types; near sea level to 2100 m
Note
The lower cylindrical part of the corolla tube is normally shorter than the throat. But in scattered collections (e.g. Polhill & Paulo 2267, Singida District: Singida–Sekenke road) throughout Kenya and Tanzania the lower part of the tube is longer than the throat. In all other characters these collections are typical and I see no reason to treat them as a separate taxon. Further south in tropical Africa this latter condition becomes the norm; here scattered specimens with short lower tube occur throughout the area. Plants from the dry northern, eastern and central parts are usually erect, have a short often dense indumentum usually with capitate glands intermixed. Plants from the central and western highland areas are erect to decumbent and have a sparse to dense indumentum of longer pilose hairs. Similar trailing plants also occur along the coast where they have sometimes been named as R. cordata. But this is a species with – as the name implies – cordate or subcordate leaves from southern Africa only extending north into Zimbabwe and Mozambique R. patula is an excessively variable species, but without extensive field-work not much progress can be made in separating out infraspecific (? or specific) taxa.
Distribution
Flora districts: T1 T2 T3 T4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K 7 T1 T2 T3T5 T6 T7 T8 Z P Range: Niger, Central African Republic, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa; Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, India

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Vernacular
Gagaleh, harbo, jajaleh, shini (Som).
Morphology General Habit
Prostrate ascending or erect annual to perennial herb up to c. 40 cm tall
Morphology Stem
Stems dull greyish green, subglabrous to usually ± densely pubescent with c. 0.2 mm long appressed to patent or up to 2 mm long irregularly spreading hairs, rarely with c. 0.5 mm long glandular hairs in addition; old persistent stems whitish
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades lanceolate to broadly ovate, up to 13–35 x 6–20 mm, apex obtuse to acute, base shortly attenuate to truncate; petiole up to 2–11 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers single or occasionally few together at upper nodes on peduncles c. 1 mm long; bracteoles leaf-like, up to 7–14 x 3–10 mm with petiole up to c. 3–8 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes narrowly triangular-subulate, often with a thin hyaline margin, densely pubescent with up to 0.3–0.5 mm long spreading hairs, up to 4–8 x 0.8–1 mm at flowering, slightly enlarged in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla blue or occasionally white, up to c. 16–32 mm long; tube narrowly funnel-shaped, 10–16 mm long; lobes free from each other for up to 4–8 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers c.1–2.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule c. 8–12-seeded, 8–16 mm long, glabrous.
Distribution
N1–3; C1, 2; S1–3; widespread in tropical Africa, also on the Arabian Peninsula and in Pakistan and India.
Ecology
Altitude range 5–1500 m.
Note
The description above is based on material from Somalia. R. patula is very variable in habit, indumentum, and in the size of flowers, capsules and vegetative parts. Several fairly distinct forms are represented, but as they are linked by collections with mixed character combinations, it has not been found possible to formally subdivide the species. Most plants could be characerized as relatively tall with erect stems mostly branched from the base with an indumentum of c. 1.5 mm long spreading hairs, and with narrowly ovate, acute leaves. Plants from dunes in S2 have been described as R. patula var. dumicola and could be characterized as low perennials with spreading to suberect stems, broadly ovate to almost orbicular, sometimes crenulated, greyish green leaves with a dense indumentum of c. 0.2 mm long whitish hairs, and blue, c. 30 mm long corollas.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Ruellia patula Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Drummond, R.B. [4269], Kenya 4288.000
Chevalier, A. [6592], Central African Republic K000394004 lectotype
Bidgood, S. [BO/07], Botswana K000823858
Welwitsch [5127], Angola K001009387
Bent, J.T.H. [107], Oman K000882522
Pearson, H.H.W. [2830], Angola K001009383
Schinz [14], Namibia K001009381
s.coll. [s.n.], Angola K001009382
Welwitsch [5009], Angola K001009384
Luke, Q. [12759], Tanzania K000662482
Schinz [14], Namibia K001009380
Schimper, W. [874], Saudi Arabia K000882521 isotype
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2385] K001115829
s.coll. [21], Angola K001009385
Gossweiler, J. [370], Angola K001009386
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 7186] Dipteracanthus erectus K001126842

First published in Misc. Austriac. 2: 358 (1779)

Accepted by

  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Malik, K.A. & Ghafoor, A. (1988). Flora of Pakistan 188: 1-79. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Rechinger, K.H. (1966). Flora Iranica 24: 1-9. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Vollesen, K. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(5): 1-184. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by M. Hedrén [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Biol. Skr. 51(2): 453 (2005)
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 395, pl. 612 & 802 (1987)
  • Chiovenda, Fl. Somala 2: 348 (1932)
  • E.P.A.: 938 (1964)
  • F.E.E. 5: 389 (2006)
  • F.P.S. 3: 187, fig. 50 (1956)
  • F.T.A. 5: 45 (1899)
  • Fiori, Boschi e Piante Legn. Eritrea: 345 (1912)
  • Fl. Rwanda 3: 483, fig. 147 (1985)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 395 (2006).
  • Hepper & Friis, Pl. Forssk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab.: 69 (1994)
  • Hooker, Ic. Pl., ser. 5, 7: t. 3690 (1971)
  • K.B. 1933: 94 (1934)
  • Lebrun & Stork, Enum. Pl. Afr. Trop. 4: 501 (1997)
  • Misc. Bot. 2: 358 (1781)
  • Opera Bot. 59: 81 (1980)
  • U.K.W.F., ed. 2: 270 (1994)
  • U.K.W.F.: 583 (1974)

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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