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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.
Dracaena fragrans 'Limelight'

[FWTA]

Agavaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Shrub about 5 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white with pink lines, very fragrant
Ecology
In drier lowland forest.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2000 m.; Andes, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto

[FTEA]

Dracenaceae, Geoffrey Mwachala & Paul Mbugua, Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2007

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree, 1.5–15 m high; stem single, up to 30 cm in diameter, or in forest often with a mass of horizontal stems near the ground from which vertical stems arise
Morphology Leaves
Leaves strap-shaped to oblanceolate, sessile, (7–)20–150 cm long, 2–12 cm wide, base attenuate, widening for 2–5 cm and sheathing the stem, apex acute with subulate mucro
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence erect, rarely pendent, paniculate, 15–160 cm long; flowers in multiflowered glomerules; pedicels 2–6 mm long, articulated below the middle
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Buds purple or pink, flowers with tube white, the lobes white with a fine red to purple line down the centre, darker outside, (15–)17–22(–25) mm long, tube 5–11 mm long, lobes 7–12 mm long, up to 3 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits bright orange, depressed globose, 11–19 mm in diameter, lobed when several-seeded; seeds white turning brown, globose to bean-shaped, 4–14 mm in diameter.
Distribution
Throughout tropical Africa
Ecology
Moist forest, often near streams; may be locally common and may form thickets; 600–2250 m
Conservation
Least concern
Note
{i}D. deremensis {/i}var. {i}warneckei {/i}of T.T.C.L. : 20 (1949) is a cultivar of {i}D. fragrans {/i}(L.) KerGawl.; see Bos {i}et al{/i}. in Edin. J. Bot. 49(3): 311–331 (1992).

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
carey, palmita roja, sangre de carey, tronco

[FWTA]

Agavaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Shrub of upland forest above 4, 000 ft. and commonly planted as a hedge, with several stems 8 or 9 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white with pink lines

[FWTA]

Agavaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
A shrub used for hedges or developing into a tree up to 30 ft. high, branched at the base and above, bearing near the top a large crown of leaves several feet long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle about 2 ft. long, arising amongst the leaves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers yellowish green or white tinged red, opening at night, very fragrant
Ecology
In drier forest.

[FTEA]
Use
Used for hedges/living fences

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Haiti, Leeward Is., Malaya, Marianas, Mexico Southeast, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2012 Gereau [6882], Tanzania K000524319
Nov 1, 2006 Tchiengue, B. [2278], Cameroon K000437429
Jun 1, 2004 Congdon, T.C.E. [631], Tanzania K000522808
Dec 1, 2003 Jannerup [280], Tanzania K000522809
Jan 1, 2002 Cable, S. [1207], Cameroon K000025684
Jan 1, 2002 Mhoro, B. [431], Tanzania K000522814
Jan 1, 2002 Ryan, P. [271], Cameroon K000025685
Jan 1, 2001 Bjornstad, A.B. [AB565], Uganda K000522773
Jan 1, 2001 Beentje, H.J. [915], Kenya K000522780
Jan 1, 2001 Greenway, P.J. [6683], Tanzania K000522791
Oct 4, 2000 Matthew, K.M. [RHT62043] K000401253
Dec 1, 1998 Thomas, D.W. [9253], Cameroon K000436815
Jan 1, 1998 Lane, P. [350], Cameroon K000025681
Jan 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [7045], Cameroon K000025682
Jan 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [7114], Cameroon K000025683
Jan 1, 1998 Cable, S. [834], Cameroon K000025686
Jan 1, 1998 Cable, S. [834], Cameroon K000025687
Jan 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [7193], Cameroon K000025680
Feb 1, 1997 Bourne [5046], India K000401254
Feb 1, 1997 Deighton, F.C. [6109], Sierra Leone K000402209
Jan 1, 1997 Williams, D.E. [927], Bolivia K000523677
May 1, 1995 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1535], Cameroon K000437422
Jan 1, 1994 s.coll. [C-VS2067], Kenya K000522784
Jan 1, 1991 Fernández Casas [11791], Equatorial Guinea K000402437
Jan 1, 1991 Fernández Casas [11791], Equatorial Guinea K000402438
Jan 1, 1990 Volkens [1416], Tanzania K000255937 isotype
Jan 1, 1990 Ujor, E. [FHI30305], Nigeria K000402222
Jan 1, 1990 Brunt, M. [965], Cameroon K000402435
Jan 1, 1990 s.coll. [Herb. Amani455], Tanzania K000522805
Jan 1, 1990 Purseglove, J.W. [P.637], Uganda K000522765
Jan 1, 1990 Purseglove, J.W. [P.637], Uganda K000522766
Jan 1, 1990 Plowes, D.C.H. [2059], Zimbabwe K000523118
Jan 1, 1990 Biegel, H.M. [2436], Zimbabwe K000523119
Jan 1, 1990 Evans, I.B.P. [1730], Uganda K000522769
Jan 1, 1990 Greenway, P.J. [6089], Tanzania K000522807
Jan 1, 1990 Osmaston, H.A. [2812], Uganda K000522768
Jan 1, 1990 Greenway, P.J. [3136], Tanzania K000522803
Jan 1, 1990 Eggeling, W.J. [1369/1423], Uganda K000522758
Jan 1, 1990 Morkel, A.R. [4516], Zimbabwe K000523120
Jan 1, 1990 Lye, K.A. [Ly6413], Uganda K000522759
Jan 1, 1990 Friis, I. [1999], Ethiopia K000522680
Jan 1, 1990 Bruce [791], Tanzania K000522806
Jan 1, 1990 Ford, J. [776], Tanzania K000522799
Jan 1, 1990 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [724], Zimbabwe K000523115
Jan 1, 1990 Friis, I. [1999], Ethiopia K000522681
Jan 1, 1990 Boughey, A.S. [96], Equatorial Guinea K000402224
Jan 1, 1990 Meyer, F.G. [7872], Ethiopia K000522676
Jan 1, 1990 Chandler, P. [818], Uganda K000522748
Jan 1, 1990 Chandler, P. [818], Uganda K000522749
Jan 1, 1990 Greenway, P.J. [4917], Tanzania K000522815
Jan 1, 1990 Perdue, R.E. [9400], Kenya K000522781
Jan 1, 1990 Welwitch [3738], Angola K000523121
Jan 1, 1990 Synnott, T.J. [1022], Uganda K000522754
Jan 1, 1990 Renvoize, S.A. [1604], Tanzania K000522804
Jan 1, 1990 Proctor, J. [661], Tanzania K000522800
Jan 1, 1990 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [6520], Zimbabwe K000523116
Jan 1, 1990 Dalziel, J.M. [8348], Cameroon K000402436
Jan 1, 1990 Chandler, P. [1942], Uganda K000522767
Jan 1, 1990 Greenway, P.J. [3136], Tanzania K000522802
Jan 1, 1990 Evans, I.B.P. [s.n.], Uganda K000522771
Jan 1, 1990 Meyer, F.G. [8945], Ethiopia K000522686
Jan 1, 1990 Jack. [427], Kenya K000522774
Jan 1, 1990 Semsei, S.R. [3187], Tanzania K000522798
Jan 1, 1990 Pawek, J. [7065], Malawi K000523114
Jan 1, 1990 Bally [B4271], Tanzania K000522801
Jan 1, 1990 Stauffer, H.U. [99], Congo, DRC K000402443
Jan 1, 1990 Dale, I.R. [3766], Kenya K000522777
Jan 1, 1990 Lebrun [4763], Congo, DRC K000402441
Jan 1, 1984 Whitfield? [s.n.], Guinea K000255904 lectotype
Jan 1, 1982 Friis, I. [1227], Sudan K000522674
Feb 1, 1979 Whyte, A. [s.n.] K000522772
Feb 1, 1979 Henty, E.E. [NGF 49280], New Guinea K000523723
Feb 1, 1979 ? Jack ? [5195], Kenya K000522787
Feb 1, 1979 Collins, D.J. [1435], Thailand K000523724
Mar 21, 1968 Erens, J. [1730], Uganda K000522770
Feb 13, 1947 van Someren, C. [7328], Uganda K000522760
Dawkins, H.C. [503], Uganda 15170.000
Eggeling, W.G. [3828], Uganda 16716.000
Campbell 34508.000
Bally [5720], Kenya 42833.000
Scott Elliot, G.F. [7264], Uganda K000255938 Unknown type material
Harris, T. [99], Mozambique K000545087
Kersting [A366], Togo K000402197
Dalziel, J.M. [8254], Sierra Leone K000402199
Deighton, F.C. [4001], Sierra Leone K000402205
Deighton, F.C. [4001], Sierra Leone K000402206
Aké Assi, L. [9417], Côte d'Ivoire K000402210
Hall, J.B. [1826], Ghana K000402213
Hall, J.B. [GC42394], Ghana K000402216
Ide [s.n.] K000402225
s.coll. [s.n.] K000402440
Faulkner, H.G. [1186], Tanzania K000522788
Congdon, T.C.E. [413], Tanzania K000522794
Cribb, P. [11079], Tanzania K000522811
Mwasumbi, L.B. [13875], Tanzania K000522812
Friis, I. [1959], Ethiopia K000522679
Gilbert, M.G. [4222], Ethiopia K000522683
Friis, I. [9782], Ethiopia K000522685
Speke [612] K000522747
Katende [700], Uganda K000522753
Eggeling, W.J. [E.3828], Uganda K000522763
s.coll. [s.n.] K000523719
Tanner, R. [5053], Tanzania K000522797
Hepper, F.N. [8114], Côte d'Ivoire K000402211
Mphamba [119], Mozambique K000614325
Bally, P.R.O. [5778], Tanzania K000522778
Congdon, T.C.E. [413], Tanzania K000522795
Bally, P.R.O. [5720], Kenya K000522785
Timberlake, J. [5308], Malawi K000614655
Dawkins, H.C. [540], Uganda K000522755
Friis, I. [1959], Ethiopia K000522678
Deighton, F.C. [4586], Sierra Leone K000402203
Jackson, T.H.E. [338], Kenya K000522775
MacGregory, W.D. [437], Nigeria K000402217
Mwangoka, M.A. [4245], Tanzania K000524024
Deighton, F.C. [2452], Sierra Leone K000402201
de Wilde, W.J.J.O. [10240], Ethiopia K000522684
Malaisse, F. [4264], Côte d'Ivoire K000522628
s.coll. [s.n.] K000523720
Friis, I. [2186], Ethiopia K000522682
Dawkins, H.C. [503], Uganda K000522756
Hansen, O.J. [888], Kenya K000522786
Luke, P.A. [4166], Kenya K000522783
Thomas, A.S. [Th836], Uganda K000522752
s.coll. [s.n.] K000402227
Deighton, F.C. [4616], Sierra Leone K000402207
Ghesquière [3884], Congo, DRC K000402442
Eggeling, W.J. [E.3399], Uganda K000522761
Abeid, Y.S. [2199], Tanzania K000524025
Eggeling, W.J. [E.3532], Uganda K000522762
Schlieben, H.J. [1687], Tanzania K000522792
Archbold, M.E. [2894], Tanzania K000522810
s.coll. [s.n.] K000523727
Smith, A.C. [9442], Fiji K000402046
Talbot, P.A. [1412], Nigeria K000402223
Moore, T. [s.n.] K000402226
Faulkner, H.G. [1186], Tanzania K000522789
Scott Elliot, G.F. [7439], Uganda K000522750
s.coll. [s.n.] K000523722
Onyeachusim [FHI54003], Nigeria K000402220
Dummer, R.A. [4554], Uganda K000522751
Meyer, F.G. [9017], Ethiopia K000522675
Deighton, F.C. [2453], Sierra Leone K000402202
Chevalier, A. [14784], Guinea K000402200
van Someren [Sh.Sh.99], Kenya K000522779
Deighton, F.C. [4586], Sierra Leone K000402204
Willan, R.L. [223], Tanzania K000522796
Balsinhas, A. [2388], Mozambique K000523113
Luke, P.A. [4166], Kenya K000522782
Jackson, T.H.E. [338], Kenya K000522776
Faulkner, H.G. [1186], Tanzania K000522790
Watkins, G. [474], Tanzania K000522793
Smith, A.C. [9442], Fiji K000402047
s.coll. [s.n.] K000402228
Timberlake, J. [5420], Mozambique K000614409
Harris, T. [99], Mozambique K000613136
Yamada, T. [191], Congo, DRC K000402444
Onyeachusim [FHI54003], Nigeria K000402219
Methuen [175], Zimbabwe K000523117
Deighton, F.C. [4616], Sierra Leone K000402208
Vigne, C. [3500], Ghana K000402212
Onyeachusim [FHI54266], Nigeria K000402221
Lebrun [4763], Congo, DRC K000522627
Gavage [7], Gabon K000402439
FitzGibbon, H. [11], Tanzania K000522813
Eggeling, W.J. [E.3828], Uganda K000522764
Onochie, C.F.A. [FHI34342], Nigeria K000402218
s.coll. [s.n.], South Africa K000402229
Dawkins, H.C. [503], Uganda K000522757
Dalziel, J.M. [8254], Sierra Leone K000402198
Swaine [GC43792], Ghana K000402215
Friis, I. [6035], Ethiopia K000522687
s.coll. [s.n.] K000523721
Swaine [GC43792], Ghana K000402214
Etuge, M. [1202], Cameroon K000540344
MacGregory, W.D. [437], Nigeria K000402191
Meyer, F.G. [7852], Ethiopia K000522677
Jan 1, 1987 Borhidi, A. [87237], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523045
Feb 1, 1979 Greenway [1678] Dracaena deremensis K000523683
Feb 1, 1979 Greenway [2367] Dracaena deremensis K000523684
Renvoize, S.A. [1604], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis 7330.000
Gardner, H.M. [3014], Kenya Dracaena deremensis K000523038
[Proclier, J.] [661], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523039
Semsei, S.R. [3173], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523040
Borhidi, A. [82164], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523044
Johnston, H.H. [176], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523041
Azima, S. [674], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523043
Greenway, P.J. [6441], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523042
Compère, P. [1434], Congo, DRC Dracaena butayei K000522610
May 1, 2013 Zapfack, L. [747], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000798147
May 1, 2013 Etuge, M. [2319], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000798148
Jun 1, 2000 Keming, E. [40 FM], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000798149
Feb 1, 1997 Hambler, D. [179], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000402196
Feb 1, 1997 Wimbush, S.H. [FHI41823] Dracaena deisteliana K000402192
Jan 1, 1991 Casas, F. [11957], Equatorial Guinea Dracaena deisteliana K000522614
Feb 1, 1979 Bauer, P.S. [139], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522617
Feb 1, 1979 Brenan, J.P.M. [9577], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522624
Feb 1, 1979 Bauer, P.S. [139], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522616
Feb 1, 1979 Boughey, A.S. [94], Equatorial Guinea Dracaena deisteliana K000522615
Jan 1, 1976 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9260], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522613
Jan 1, 1976 McClintock, A. [202], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402186
Jan 1, 1976 McClintock, A. [202], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402185
Jan 1, 1976 Latilo, M.G. [FHI34370], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522612
Jan 1, 1976 Tuley, P. [2115], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402187
Jan 1, 1976 Coombe, D.E. [DEC95], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402190
Jan 1, 1966 Dalziel, J.M. [8348], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000402195
Jan 1, 1966 illegible [357], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522619
Jan 1, 1966 Dundas [FHI20374], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402194
Etuge, M. [99], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522622
Brunt, M. [626], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522618
Hall, J.B. [1681], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402189
Chapman, J.D. [4230], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402188
illegible [1328], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522620
Breteler, F.J. [MC178], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522623
Cable, S. [3405], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000025655
Etuge, M. [99], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522621
Chapman, J.D. [4645], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402193

First published in Bot. Mag. 27: t. 1081 (1808)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1987). A Geographical Checklist of the Micronesian Monocotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 20: 19-129.
  • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
  • Mwachala, G. & Mbugua, P.K. (2007). Dracaenaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-43.
  • National Parks Board Singapore (2006). Vascular Plant Life Checklist Pulau Ubin www.nparks.gov.sg/nparks_cms/cms/cmsmgr/data/6/PlantChkList.xls.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Velayos, M. & al. (eds.) (2018). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 10: 1-491. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • in Bot. Mag. 1081 (1808).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1987). A Geographical Checklist of the Micronesian Monocotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 20: 19-129.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
  • Mwachala, G. & Mbugua, P.K. (2007). Dracaenaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-43.
  • National Parks Board Singapore (2006). Vascular Plant Life Checklist Pulau Ubin www.nparks.gov.sg/nparks_cms/cms/cmsmgr/data/6/PlantChkList.xls.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

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  • Ker-Gawl. in Bot. Mag.: t. 1081 (1808)
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 236 (1949)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
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