Skip to main content
This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Medit. to Mongolia and India, Africa, SW. U.S.A. to N. Mexico, Peru to Chile.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FTEA]

Zygophyllaceae, M. Nabil El Hadidi (Faculty of Science, Cairo University). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or shrublets, rarely annual herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves paired at each node, equal in size, paripinnate or rarely with 1 leaflet or simple; stipules membranous or fleshy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary or in cymose clusters at each node, 4-5-merous, regular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white, yellow or orange, clawed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8-10 in 2 whorls; filaments with entire, bifid or bipartite basal scale
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary glabrous or covered with short hairs, 5-lobed, 5-locular; ovules few-numerous in each locule; style and stigma simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a loculicidal or septicidal capsule
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed with endosperm.

[FZ]

Zygophyllaceae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Small shrubs or shrublets, rarely perennial or annual herbs, often armed.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, (1) 2-foliolate, succulent, often caducous; leaflets very variable in size and shape, subcircular, spathulate, elliptic, linear, lanceolate or lanceolate-elliptic.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules present, often spiny.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary or sometimes 2-nate, terminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4–5, imbricate, persistent or deciduous, sometimes connate at the base, somewhat fleshy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4–5, sometimes unguiculate, usually longer than the sepals, imbricate, whitish or yellow and often with a red spot at the base, spreading.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk cup-shaped, fleshy, 8–10-angled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8–10, inserted at the base of the disk; filaments subulate, provided with a usually fimbriate or pectinate, bifid or bipartite appendage at the base; anthers oblong or oblong-ovate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary sessile on the disk, 4–5-locular, with 2 or more pendulous ovules in each loculus; style simple, terete, with a small stigma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a capsule or samara, 4–5-locular, 4–5-angled or winged, usually with several seeds.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds crustaceous, with scanty endosperm.

[FTEA]

Zygophyllaceae, M. Nabil El Hadidi (Faculty of Science, Cairo University). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Annual herbs, or mostly biennial or perennial shrubs or undershrubs, glabrous or covered with an indumentum which is characteristic for each species; branches mostly erect, sometimes angular or grooved, swollen at the nodes
Morphology Leaves
Leaves paired at each node, equal in size, mostly 3-foliolate becoming 1-foliolate through reduction with a characteristic joint between petiole and blade, rarely sessile; stipules usually develop into spines, rarely absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary at each node, up to 20 mm. across, 5-merous, regular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 10 in 2 whorls; filaments without a basal scale
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit an obconical capsule; peduncle longer or shorter than the capsule; calyx persistent or deciduous at maturity of the capsule
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with endosperm; testa brown, punctate.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Herbs, subshrubs or small shrubs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, equal in size, 1–3-foliolate or simple; stipules usually spinescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary at each node, 5-merous, regular. Petals pink or sometimes white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 10, in 2 whorls; filaments without scales
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc inconspicuous, smooth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary 5-angled, nearly always pubescent, 5-celled; style and stigma simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a loculicidal capsule, ± obconical
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with endosperm, mucilaginous but without internal structures; hilum much shorter than seed; aril absent.
Distribution
In the drier parts of Africa, Asia, Mediterranean Region and N America.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Some 40 species in the dry parts of Africa and Asia, also extending into the Mediterranean Region.
Morphology General Habit
Shrubs, shrublets or herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves paired at each node, 1- or 2-foliolate or simple; stipules membranous or fleshy, ± fused
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary or in cymes or clusters at the nodes, (4–)5-merous, regular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white, yellow or pale orange
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 10 in 2 whorls; filaments with basal appendages
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc angular, smooth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous or shortly hairy, usually 5-lobed, 5-celled, each cell with few to numerous ovules; style and stigma simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a schizocarp, mericarps opening septicidally or indehiscent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with endosperm; outer testa mucilaginous with internal funnel- or rod-like structures.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Altay, Angola, Arizona, Baleares, Botswana, Bulgaria, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Greece, Gulf States, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, North Caucasus, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Peru, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen

Introduced into:

Colorado, France, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, New York, Sardegna, Washington

Zygophyllum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Collenette, I.S. [6378], Saudi Arabia 52270.000
Wood, J.R.I. [2676], Yemen 59841.000
Sep 1, 1983 Gillett, J.B. [23803], Somalia Fagonia K000417162

First published in Sp. Pl.: 385 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 1: 285.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 182 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 385 (1753)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Engler in E. & P. Pf., ed. 2, 19a: 160-166 (1931)
  • Hadidi in Webbia 33: 48-72 (1978)
  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 182 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 385 (1753)
  • van Huyssteen, Morphologisch-systematische Studien über die Gattung Zygophyllum mit besonderer en Berücksichtigung der afrikanischen Arten, Dissert. Math.-Naturwiss. Fak. Univ. Berlin (1937)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0