1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Rotheca Raf.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa to Tropical Asia.

    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Shrubs, subshrubs and perennial herbs (rarely lianas or small trees), ill-scented
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or whorled, usually sessile or short-petiolate, simple, entire or toothed
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a terminal thyrse (usually lax, paniculiform) or axillary cyme, occasionally reduced to solitary, axillary flowers
    Calyx
    Calyx actinomorphic or nearly so, not accrescent, 5-lobed or truncate
    Corolla
    Corolla blue, purple or white (rarely yellow), subactinomorphic to 1-lipped and then with only anterior lip present, 5-lobed, lobes subequal or anterior lobe largest and often concave and different in colour, tube straight or curved, often gibbous, coroll
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous to subequal, long-exserted, filaments arched or straight, anther-thecae parallel, separate at dehiscence
    Pollen
    Pollen with supratectal spinules
    Ovary
    Ovary unlobed in flower but becoming lobed during fruit development
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes equal or frequently unequal
    Disc
    Disc poorly to well developed
    Fruits
    Fruit drupaceous, 4-lobed, the lobes sometimes elongating greatly during development, eventually separating into fleshy 1-seeded mericarps
    Endosperm
    Endosperm absent.
    Note
    2n = 48, 52, 184.  Fifty to 60 species. Although Rotheca has been included within Clerodendrum by most authors, there is strong molecular evidence that its inclusion renders Clerodendrum polyphyletic (Steane et al. 1997, 1999).  The two genera also differ
    Distribution
    Mostly of sub-Saharan Africa but a few in Madagascar, the Indian Ocean islands, southern Asia, and Indonesia.  Introduced to West Tropical Africa
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    General
    Perennial herbs or suffrutices with woody rootstocks, sometimes geoxylic, shrubs, sometimes scandent, or small trees
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, opposite-decussate or 3–4-whorled, usually petiolate; lamina entire, undulate, dentate or crenate, distinctly acrid when crushed Leaves simple, opposite-decussate or 3–4-whorled, usually petiolate; lamina entire, undulate, dentate or crenate, distinctly acrid when crushed. Leaf lamina usually broadest above the middle, usually discolorous and whitish or yellowish tomentose beneath; branches often densely hairy or tomentose towards the apices; short lateral flowering branches often present
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, with flowers in lax or ± dense cymes, the cymes racemosely, corymbosely or paniculately arranged Inflorescences terminal or axillary, with flowers in lax or ± dense cymes, the cymes racemosely, corymbosely or paniculately arranged.
    Flowers
    Flowers non-resupinate Flowers non-resupinate.
    Calyx
    Calyx usually red or purple, campanulate to subspherical, ± deeply (4)5(6)-lobed, usually persistent and slightly accrescent in fruit; the lobes acute to rounded Calyx usually red or purple, campanulate to subspherical, ± deeply (4)5(6)-lobed, usually persistent and slightly accrescent in fruit; the lobes acute to rounded.
    Corolla
    Corolla predominantly blue to whitish, asymmetrical in bud, distinctly zygomorphic when open; tube relatively short and broad, anteriorly gibbose; limb 5-lobed with 2 posterior lobes subequalling 2 lateral lobes and 1-anterior lobe larger than the others, concave or spoon-like and often coloured differently Corolla predominantly blue to whitish, asymmetrical in bud, distinctly zygomorphic when open; tube relatively short and broad, anteriorly gibbose; limb 5-lobed with 2 posterior lobes subequalling 2 lateral lobes and 1-anterior lobe larger than the others, concave or spoon-like and often coloured differently.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4(5?) inserted at the base of corolla-tube, parallel, long exserted, arched; anthers usually basifixed, thecae parallel, not confluent Stamens 4(5?) inserted at the base of corolla-tube, parallel, long exserted, arched; anthers usually basifixed, thecae parallel, not confluent.
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous or hairy, 2-carpellate, each carpel incompletely divided into 2 locules; placentas not furcate; ovules 1 per locule Ovary glabrous or hairy, 2-carpellate, each carpel incompletely divided into 2 locules; placentas not furcate; ovules 1 per locule.
    Style
    Style terminal, slender, ± equalling the filaments; stigma 2-fid, the lobes usually unequal
    Fruits
    Fruit a 3–4-lobed drupe or drupaceous schizocarp, obovoid or globose; mesocarp ± fleshy; endocarp bony or crustaceous; each lobe containing a 1-seeded pyrene; seed without albumen. Fruit a 3–4-lobed drupe or drupaceous schizocarp, obovoid or globose; mesocarp ± fleshy; endocarp bony or crustaceous; each lobe containing a 1-seeded pyrene; seed without albumen.
    Distribution
    A genus of 26–30 species, widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with 1 species in tropical Asia eastwards to the Moluccas, and one species introduced and naturalized in Madagascar and the Indian Ocean islands.
    Habit
    Perennial herbs or suffrutices with woody rootstocks, sometimes geoxylic, shrubs, sometimes scandent, or small trees.
    Pistil
    Style terminal, slender, ± equalling the filaments; stigma 2-fid, the lobes usually unequal.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Seychelles, Trinidad-Tobago

    Rotheca Raf. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fl. Tellur. 4: 69 (1838)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Harley et al. in Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII: 198 (2004).
    • Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII : 198 (2004).
    • Kew Bull. 55 : 147–154 (2000).
    • R. Fernandes & Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 55: 147–154 (2000).
    • Novon 8 : 204–206 (1998).
    • Steane & Mabberley in Novon 8: 204–206 (1998).
    • Fl. Tellur. 4: 69 (1838).
    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    • Harley RM, Atkins S, Budantsev AL, Cantino PD, Conn BJ, Grayer R, Harley MM, de Kok RPJ, Krestovskaja T, Morales R, Paton AJ, Ryding O, and Upson T. 2004. Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Sp
    • Steane and Mabberley, Novon 8: 204 - 206 (1998).
    • Clerodendrum L. subg. Clerodendrum sect. Konocalyx Verdc. (1992).
    • Clerodendrum L. subg. Cyclonema (Hochst.) Guerke (1895).
    • Kalaharia Baill., Hist. Pl. 11: 110 (1892)., (1891).
    • Cyrtostemma Kunze, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 1: 272 (1843).
    • Cyclonema Hochst., Flora 25: 225 (1842).
    • Spironema Hochst., Flora 25: 226 (1842), nom. illeg.
    • Rotheca Raf., Fl. Tell. 4: 69 (1838)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    Nina Davies, Gemma Bramley and Don Kirkup, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0