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This species is accepted, and its native range is Sicilia, S. Greece, Africa, Arabian Peninsula to Indian Subcontinent.
Cenchrus ciliaris

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1000 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Perennial, often forming mats or tussocks; stems up to 150 cm high, wiry or somewhat woody; leaves flat, 2–13 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle 2–14 cm long; involucre elongate, 6–16 mm long; inner bristles much exceeding the spikelets, one of them longer and stouter than the rest, united only at the base to form a disc 0.5–1.5 mm in diam. (or sometimes connate for up to 0.5 mm above its rim), sparsely to densely ciliate below, filiform above, flexuous, antrorsely scaberulous; outer bristles filiform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 1–4 per burr, 2–5.5 mm long.
Distribution
N1–3; C1, 2; S1–3 throughout Africa, extending through South-west Asia to India, widely introduced elsewhere in the Old World.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–1650 m.
Vernacular
Agar loak, anodug, arapsor, balhorle, garrow, gudomad, gurde agar, harfo, irdug (Somali).

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Perennial, often forming mats or tussocks; culms 10–150 cm., ascending, wiry or sometimes almost woody.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades 3–25 cm. long, 2–13 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle cylindrical to ovoid, 2–14 cm. long, 10–26 mm. wide, grey, purple or straw-coloured, the rhachis angular and puberulous; involucre elongate, 6–16 mm. long; inner bristles much exceeding the spikelets, one of them longer and stouter than the rest, at least the longest somewhat flattened at the base, connate only at the base to form a disc 0.5–1.5 mm. in diameter (or sometimes connate for up to 0.5 mm. above the disc’s rim), sparsely or densely ciliate below, grooved on the face or not, filiform above, flexuous, often wavy, antrorsely scaberulous; outer bristles filiform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 1–4 per burr, 2–5.5 mm. long, acutely lanceolate; glumes distinct, acute, the lower from 1/4–1/2, the upper from 1/2 to as long as the spikelet.
Habitat
A common grass on a wide variety of soil types in deciduous bushland and wooded grassland; 0–2000 m.
Distribution
throughout Africa, extending through Arabia and the Middle East to Indiawidely introduced elsewhere in the Old World. K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
pasto bufel

[FZ]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Perennial, often forming mats or tussocks.
Morphology Culms
Culms 10–150 cm. high, ascending, wiry or sometimes almost woody.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle 2–14 cm. long, cylindrical to ovoid, grey, purple or straw-coloured; involucre 6–16 mm. long, connate only at the base to form a disk 0.5–1.5 mm. in diam.; inner bristles flexuous, often wavy, sparsely to densely ciliate below, filiform above, one of them longer and stouter than the rest, this at least somewhat flattened towards the base; outer bristles filiform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 1–4 per bur, 2–5.5 mm. long, acutely lanceolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes distinct, acute, the inferior from 1/4–1/2, the superior from 1/2 to as long as spikelet.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Superior lemma chartaceous.
Superior
Superior lemma chartaceous.

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Perennial, culms ascending, up to about 1 in. high
Ecology
Indigenous in the drier areas, but probably introduced in the south where it occurs on rubbish tips, roadsides, etc.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes short. Butt sheaths distinctly ribbed; sparsely hairy, or pubescent, or pilose. Basal innovations extravaginal. Culms geniculately ascending; 10-50 cm long; 1-4 mm diam.; wiry. Lateral branches sparse. Leaves basal and cauline. Leaf-sheaths loose; open for most of their length; with flat margins; 5-8.5 cm long; mostly shorter than adjacent culm internode; keeled; striately veined; scaberulous; glabrous on surface, or pilose; outer margin glabrous, or hairy. Leaf-sheath oral hairs scanty, or ciliate. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 0.2-2 mm long. Collar glabrous. Leaf-blades 3-25 cm long; 4-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous; prominent beneath. Leaf-blade venation distinct. Leaf-blade surface ribbed; scaberulous; glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy; hairy on both sides (or glabrous); with tubercle-based hairs (at times). Leaf-blade margins unthickened; eglandular; glabrous, or ciliate. Leaf-blade apex acuminate; hardened.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear to oblong; 2-14 cm long; 1-2.6 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular; puberulous; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1-4 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; connate into a disc below (0.5-1mm diam); with 0.2-0.3(-0.5) mm connate; 6-12 mm long; base obconical. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with an outer whorl of thinner bristles; inner bristles longer than outer; with one conspicuously longer bristle; 8-16 mm long; flattened (at least base of longest bristle); without grooves, or grooved on the face; flexible (often wavy); antrorsely scaberulous; ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acute; 2-5.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acute; 2-5.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.2-0.5 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 0.4-1 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 1 length of fertile lemma; membranous; 5 -veined; acute; mucronate. Fertile lemma ovate; dorsally compressed; lanceolate in profile; 2-5.5 mm long; chartaceous; pallid; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute; mucronate. Palea ovate; 1 length of lemma; chartaceous; 2 -veined. Palea apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy. Anthers 3; 1.5 mm long. Stigmas 2; protogynous; terminally exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis obovoid; dorsally compressed; 1-1.3 mm long; dark brown; glabrous; truncate, or obtuse; apex unappendaged.
Distribution
Europe: southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Paniceae. VJN 1993.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Rhizomes short. Culms geniculately ascending; 40-60 cm long; swollen at the base. Culm-internodes smooth; distally glabrous. Leaf-sheaths keeled; pilose. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 0.5 mm long. Leaf-blades 25-35 cm long; 4-5 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; hirsute; sparsely hairy. Leaf-blade margins smooth, or scaberulous. Leaf-blade apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 3-8 cm long; 0.7-1.2 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular; scaberulous; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 3 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; connate into a disc below; with 1 mm connate; 6-7 mm long. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; with an outer whorl of thinner bristles; inner bristles longer than outer; with longest bristle scarcely emergent, or with one conspicuously longer bristle; 5-8 mm long; flattened; rigid; antrorsely scaberulous; glabrous; spinose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 4.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 4.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume ovate; 1.8-2 mm long; 0.4-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume surface puberulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; puberulous; hairy above; acuminate. Fertile lemma ovate; 4.5 mm long; coriaceous; much thinner on margins; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acuminate; pubescent. Palea coriaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 2.5 mm long; yellow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ovoid; dorsally compressed; 2.5 mm long.
Distribution
Africa: western Indian ocean.
Reference
Paniceae. Camus 2007.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Aruba, Bahamas, Bolivia, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, California, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Guyana, Hawaii, Honduras, Jawa, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Malaya, Marquesas, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Missouri, Netherlands Antilles, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Australia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia

English
African foxtail, Blue buffalo grass, Buffalo grass, Foxtail buffalo grass, Pearl millet

Cenchrus ciliaris L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 27, 2008 Crawford, F. [182], Namibia K000450378
Mar 21, 1932 Wight, R. [3238], India K000245390 Unknown type material
Mar 21, 1932 s.coll. [s.n.], India K001056134
Harley, R.M. [16242], Bahia K000004802
Kotschy [190], Sudan K000281252 isotype
Kotschy [190], Sudan K000281251 isotype
Kotschy [52], Ethiopia K000281253
Kotschy [52], Ethiopia K000281254
Schimper [153], Egypt K000244667
Schimper [153], Egypt K000244668
Schimper [153], Egypt K000244670
Floyer, E.S. [81] K000244669
Kotschy [170] K000244671
Carneiro-Torres, D.S. [96], Brazil K001106075
Queiroz, L.P. [5561], Brazil K001106074
Gussone, G. [s.n.] K001056141
Filgueiras, T.S. [832], Brazil K001106070
Nascimento, M.S.B. [1401], Brazil K001106068
França, F. [5128], Brazil K001106066
Dombrowski, L.T. [7387], Brazil K001106069
Carvalho, A.M. [3967], Brazil K001106073
Filgueiras, T.S. [827], Brazil K001106071
Glaziou, A. [20098], Brazil K001106072

First published in Mant. Pl. 2: 302 (1771)

Accepted by

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  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Al-Rawi, A. (1987). Flora of Kuwait 2: 1-455. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 394
  • De Miré & Gillet in J. Agric. Trop. 3: 729.
  • F.T.A. 9: 1072
  • Mant. Alt. 302 (1771)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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