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This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa to NW. India.
Cenchrus biflorus Roxb.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual; caespitose. Culms geniculately ascending; 5-90 cm long. Culm-internodes unequal, the upper longer; channelled; thin-walled; eglandular; smooth; distally glabrous, or pubescent. Culm-nodes constricted; purple; glabrous. Lateral branches ample; extravaginal; arising from lower culm, or mid culm. Branch complement constant; one, or two; with subequal branches; thinner than stem. Leaves basal and cauline. Leaf-sheaths loose; open for most of their length; with flat margins; longer than adjacent culm internode; keeled; scaberulous; glabrous on surface, or pubescent; outer margin glabrous; inner surface glabrous. Leaf-sheath oral hairs ciliate, or bearded. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 2 mm long. Collar dark; pubescent. Leaf-blade base simple, or broadly rounded, or cordate. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 2-25 cm long; 2-7 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; rough on both sides; puberulous, or pilose (sparsely). Leaf-blade margins scaberulous; glabrous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 2-15 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular; scabrous; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1-3 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; connate into a disc below (2-4mm diam); with 0.5-1 mm connate; ovate; 4-11 mm long; base obconical; base glabrous. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; in one whorl, or with an outer whorl of thinner bristles; 7-15 in principal whorl; inner bristles longer than outer; with longest bristle scarcely emergent; 2.9-7 mm long; flattened; grooved on the face; rigid; retrorsely scaberulous; ciliate; obtuse, or spinose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 3.5-6 mm long; 1-1.5 mm wide; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 3.5-6 mm long; 1-1.5 mm wide; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.4-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 0-1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume ovate; 2.5-3.5 mm long; 0.6-0.7 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1-5 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 0.7-0.8 length of spikelet; membranous; 3-5 -veined; acute; muticous, or mucronate. Fertile lemma ovate; 3.5-6 mm long; coriaceous; much thinner on margins; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acute. Palea coriaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 0.4 mm long; brown; anther tip smooth. Filaments 2 mm long. Stigmas yellow. Styles 2.2 mm long. Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis oblong, or orbicular; 1.1-1.3 mm long.
Distribution
Africa: north, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia and Arabia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia.
Reference
Paniceae. VJN 1993.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual up to 90 cm high; leaves flat, 2–7 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle 2–15 cm long; involucre ovoid, 4–11 mm long; inner spines flattened, united at the base to form a shallow disc 2–4 mm in diam., ciliate below, retrorsely barbellate and pungent at the tip; outer spines numerous, acicular, shorter than the inner, often divergent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 1–3 per burr, 3.5–6 mm long.
Distribution
C1, 2; S2, 3 tropical Africa, Arabia and India.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–125 m.

Doubtfully present in:

Morocco

Native to:

Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, New York

English
Burgrass

Cenchrus biflorus Roxb. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Hildebrandt, J.M. [1094], Tanzania K000281107 holotype
Kanodia, K.C. [2354], Rajasthan K000245389 isotype
Kotschy [3], Sudan K000281256
Michelmore, A.P.G., Sudan K000281258
Figari, Sudan K000281257

First published in Fl. Ind. 1: 238 (1820)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2019). Novitates Gabonenses 91: additons to the grass flora of Gabon Plant Ecology and Evolution 152: 99-105.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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