1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Euphorbia L.
      1. Euphorbia tirucalli L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa and India.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Densely branched often apparently dioecious shrubs to 4 m. or trees to 12 (–15) m. high, with brittle succulent branchlets ± 7 mm. thick often produced in whorls, green and longitudinally finely striated, with white to yellowish latex.
    Leaves
    Leaves few, fleshy, linear-lanceolate, to 15 × 2 mm., present only at the tips of young branchlets and very quickly deciduous; extreme tips of young leafy branchlets sparsely tomentose, with curled brown hairs, soon glabrescent; glandular stipules minute, dark brown.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes 2–6 congested at the apices of the branchlets, forking 2–4 times, with rays less than 1 mm. long producing a dense cluster of cyathia developing only ♂ flowers, or occasionally a few ♀ flowers also present, or cyathia fewer and only ♀ flowers developing, the whole cyme ± glabrous or tomentose, with curled brown hairs, especially the involucres and lobes; bracts rounded, ± 2 × 1.5 mm., ± sharply keeled, usually glabrous except on the margin.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia subsessile, ± 3 × 4 mm., with cup-shaped involucres; glands 5, subglobose to transversely elliptic, 0.5 mm. in diameter to 1.5 × 2 mm., bright yellow; lobes triangular, ± 0.5 mm. long.
    Male
    Male involucres:bracteoles linear with plumose apices; stamens 4.5 mm. long; an aborted ♀ flower is occasionally present.
    Flowers
    Female involucres:bracteoles present and occasionally a few ♂ flowers; ♀ perianth distinctly 3-lobed below the tomentose ovary, with lobes 0.5 mm. long; styles 2 mm. long, joined at the base, with thickened deeply bifid recurved apices. Male involucres:bracteoles linear with plumose apices; stamens 4.5 mm. long; an aborted ♀ flower is occasionally present.
    Female
    Female involucres:bracteoles present and occasionally a few ♂ flowers; ♀ perianth distinctly 3-lobed below the tomentose ovary, with lobes 0.5 mm. long; styles 2 mm. long, joined at the base, with thickened deeply bifid recurved apices.
    Fruits
    Capsule glabrescent, exserted on a tomentose pedicel to 1 cm. long, subglobose, ± 8 × 8.5 mm.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, 3.5 × 2.8 mm., smooth, buff speckled with brown and with a dark brown ventral line; caruncle 1 mm. across.
    Figures
    Fig. 89/1, 2, p. 472.
    Habitat
    In grassland and thin woodland, and often naturalised around habitation; 0–2000 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 widespread throughout tropical Africa, also in the Arabian peninsula, Madagascar, and India to the Far East
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

    Habit
    Spineless succulent densely branched often apparently dioecious shrubs to 4 m or trees to 7 m high, with a copious irritant white to yellowish latex.
    Branches
    Branchlets brittle terete succulent, c. 7 mm thick, often produced in whorls, green with longitudinal fine striations and very small leaf scars, the extreme tips of young leafy branchlets sparsely tomentose with curled brown hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves few, present only at the tips of young branchlets and quickly deciduous, subsessile; stipules glandular, minute, dark brown; lamina fleshy to 15 × 2 mm, linear-lanceolate.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes congested, 2–6 at the branchlet apices, each forking 2–4 times, with rays less than 1 mm long, producing a dense cluster of cyathia developing only male flowers, or occasionally a few female flowers also present, or cyathia fewer and only female flowers developing, the whole cyme ± glabrous, or tomentose with curled brown hairs especially on the involucres and lobes; bracts c. 2 × 1.5 mm, rounded, ± sharply keeled, usually glabrous except on the margin.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia subsessile, c. 3 × 4 mm, with cup-shaped involucres; glands 5, 0.5 mm in diameter subcircular to 1.5 × 2 mm transversely elliptic, bright yellow; lobes c. 0.5 mm long, triangular.
    Male
    Male involucres: bracteoles linear with plumose apices; stamens 4.5 mm long; an aborted female flower is occasionally present.
    Flowers
    Female involucres: bracteoles present and occasionally also a few male flowers; female perianth distinctly 3-lobed below the tomentose ovary, with lobes 0.5 mm long; styles 2 mm long, joined at the base, with thickened deeply bifid recurved apices. Male involucres: bracteoles linear with plumose apices; stamens 4.5 mm long; an aborted female flower is occasionally present.
    Female
    Female involucres: bracteoles present and occasionally also a few male flowers; female perianth distinctly 3-lobed below the tomentose ovary, with lobes 0.5 mm long; styles 2 mm long, joined at the base, with thickened deeply bifid recurved apices.
    Fruits
    Capsule glabrescent, c. 8 × 8.5 mm, subglobose, exserted on a tomentose pedicel to 10 mm long.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3.5 × 2.8 mm, ovoid, smooth, buff speckled with brown and with a dark brown ventral line; caruncle 1 mm across.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 670 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe.
    Habit
    Arbusto

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Comoros, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Rwanda, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Jawa, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Mexico Central, Myanmar, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam

    Euphorbia tirucalli L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2003 Baron, R. [6995], Madagascar K000185112
    Jan 1, 2003 Baron, R. [6950], Madagascar K000185113
    Jan 1, 2003 Baron, R. [6750], Madagascar K000185114
    Apr 1, 1971 Leach, L.C. [14129B], South Africa K000317981
    Apr 1, 1971 Leach, L.C. [14463], Zimbabwe K000317982
    Apr 1, 1971 Leach, L.C. [14463], Zimbabwe K000317983
    Oct 1, 1959 Gossweiler [474], Angola K000253093 syntype
    Oct 1, 1959 Welwitsch [630], Angola K000253092
    Oct 1, 1959 Rattray [s.n.], Angola K000253094 syntype
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7289], Tanzania 4141.000
    Greenway, P.J. [6655], Tanzania 2606.000
    Wild, H. [4712], Zimbabwe 5232.000
    Drummond, R.B. [3330], Tanzania 2607.000
    Drummond, R.B. [3365], Tanzania 4144.000
    Bally, P.R.O. [E14], Kenya 16754.000
    Faulkner, H. [3014], Tanzania 25792.000
    Faulkner, H. [1548], Tanzania 5231.000
    Tweedie [2101], Kenya 2608.000
    Andrews, F.W. [Bally 12393], Sudan 2609.000
    Eyles, F., Zimbabwe 16755.000
    Gossweiler, J. [474], Angola 2610.000
    Ash [459], Ethiopia 26332.030
    Faulkner, H. [3088], Tanzania 25827.000
    Lighthouse Keeper, Mozambique 16757.000
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000253090 syntype
    Archbold, M.E. [880], Tanzania 33210.000
    Leach, L.C. [11885], Mozambique K000317984
    Phillipson, P.B. [2310], Madagascar K000185124
    Phillipson, P.B. [2480], Madagascar K000185125
    Phillipson, P.B. [2388], Madagascar K000185126
    Speke, Tanzania K000252989
    Scott, L. [s.n.], Malawi K000253091 syntype
    Busse, W. [250], Tanzania K000252988
    [L.Muriel] [L 67] K000252854

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 452 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Rebmann, N. (2007). Les Euphorbes de Madagascar Succulentes Spécial: 1-48.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 3: 1-634. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Leach in Kirkia 9: 69 (1973).
    • E. Lind & A. Tallantire, Some Common Flowering Plants of Uganda p. 113 (1962).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 199 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 201 (1961).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 460 (1958).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 128 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 211 (1949).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 255 (1949).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 478 (1948).
    • N.E. Br. in Fl. Cap. 5(2): 293 (1915).
    • Boiss. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 96 (1862).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 452 (1753).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/