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This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa and India.
Euphorbia tirucalli

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Densely branched often apparently dioecious shrubs to 4 m. or trees to 12 (–15) m. high, with brittle succulent branchlets ± 7 mm. thick often produced in whorls, green and longitudinally finely striated, with white to yellowish latex.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves few, fleshy, linear-lanceolate, to 15 × 2 mm., present only at the tips of young branchlets and very quickly deciduous; extreme tips of young leafy branchlets sparsely tomentose, with curled brown hairs, soon glabrescent; glandular stipules minute, dark brown.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes 2–6 congested at the apices of the branchlets, forking 2–4 times, with rays less than 1 mm. long producing a dense cluster of cyathia developing only ♂ flowers, or occasionally a few ♀ flowers also present, or cyathia fewer and only ♀ flowers developing, the whole cyme ± glabrous or tomentose, with curled brown hairs, especially the involucres and lobes; bracts rounded, ± 2 × 1.5 mm., ± sharply keeled, usually glabrous except on the margin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Cyathia
Cyathia subsessile, ± 3 × 4 mm., with cup-shaped involucres; glands 5, subglobose to transversely elliptic, 0.5 mm. in diameter to 1.5 × 2 mm., bright yellow; lobes triangular, ± 0.5 mm. long.
sex Male
Male involucres:bracteoles linear with plumose apices; stamens 4.5 mm. long; an aborted ♀ flower is occasionally present.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female involucres:bracteoles present and occasionally a few ♂ flowers; ♀ perianth distinctly 3-lobed below the tomentose ovary, with lobes 0.5 mm. long; styles 2 mm. long, joined at the base, with thickened deeply bifid recurved apices. Male involucres:bracteoles linear with plumose apices; stamens 4.5 mm. long; an aborted ♀ flower is occasionally present.
sex Female
Female involucres:bracteoles present and occasionally a few ♂ flowers; ♀ perianth distinctly 3-lobed below the tomentose ovary, with lobes 0.5 mm. long; styles 2 mm. long, joined at the base, with thickened deeply bifid recurved apices.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule glabrescent, exserted on a tomentose pedicel to 1 cm. long, subglobose, ± 8 × 8.5 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid, 3.5 × 2.8 mm., smooth, buff speckled with brown and with a dark brown ventral line; caruncle 1 mm. across.
Figures
Fig. 89/1, 2, p. 472.
Habitat
In grassland and thin woodland, and often naturalised around habitation; 0–2000 m.
Distribution
K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 widespread throughout tropical Africa, also in the Arabian peninsula, Madagascar, and India to the Far East

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Spineless succulent densely branched often apparently dioecious shrubs to 4 m or trees to 7 m high, with a copious irritant white to yellowish latex.
Morphology Branches
Branchlets brittle terete succulent, c. 7 mm thick, often produced in whorls, green with longitudinal fine striations and very small leaf scars, the extreme tips of young leafy branchlets sparsely tomentose with curled brown hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves few, present only at the tips of young branchlets and quickly deciduous, subsessile; stipules glandular, minute, dark brown; lamina fleshy to 15 × 2 mm, linear-lanceolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes congested, 2–6 at the branchlet apices, each forking 2–4 times, with rays less than 1 mm long, producing a dense cluster of cyathia developing only male flowers, or occasionally a few female flowers also present, or cyathia fewer and only female flowers developing, the whole cyme ± glabrous, or tomentose with curled brown hairs especially on the involucres and lobes; bracts c. 2 × 1.5 mm, rounded, ± sharply keeled, usually glabrous except on the margin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Cyathia
Cyathia subsessile, c. 3 × 4 mm, with cup-shaped involucres; glands 5, 0.5 mm in diameter subcircular to 1.5 × 2 mm transversely elliptic, bright yellow; lobes c. 0.5 mm long, triangular.
sex Male
Male involucres: bracteoles linear with plumose apices; stamens 4.5 mm long; an aborted female flower is occasionally present.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female involucres: bracteoles present and occasionally also a few male flowers; female perianth distinctly 3-lobed below the tomentose ovary, with lobes 0.5 mm long; styles 2 mm long, joined at the base, with thickened deeply bifid recurved apices. Male involucres: bracteoles linear with plumose apices; stamens 4.5 mm long; an aborted female flower is occasionally present.
sex Female
Female involucres: bracteoles present and occasionally also a few male flowers; female perianth distinctly 3-lobed below the tomentose ovary, with lobes 0.5 mm long; styles 2 mm long, joined at the base, with thickened deeply bifid recurved apices.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule glabrescent, c. 8 × 8.5 mm, subglobose, exserted on a tomentose pedicel to 10 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 3.5 × 2.8 mm, ovoid, smooth, buff speckled with brown and with a dark brown ventral line; caruncle 1 mm across.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 670 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Densely branched shrub to 4 m high, or bushy tree to 8 m high; branches green, succulent, brittle, longitudinally striated, often produced in whorls
Morphology Leaves
Leaves linear-lanceolate, 1–1.5 x 0.2 cm, quickly deciduous; extreme tips of young leafy branchlets tomentose, with curled brown hairs; glandular stipules minute, dark brown
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes densely clustered 2–6 at the branch apices, forking 2–4 times with rays less than 1 mm long and cyathia developing only male flowers, or occasionally a few female flowers also present, or cyathia fewer and only female flowers developing, the whole cyme tomentose with curled brown hairs; bracts rounded, 2 x 1.5 mm, glabrous except on the margin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Cyathia subsessile, 4 mm in diam.; glands 5, 0.5–2 mm broad, bright yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary tomentose, with a 3-lobed perianth, lobes 0.5 mm long; styles 2 mm long, joined at the base, with thickened deeply bifid recurved apices
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule exserted on a pedicel 1 cm long, subglobose, 8 x 8.5 mm, glabrescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid, 3.5 x 2.8 mm, smooth, buff, speckled, with a dark brown ventral line; caruncle 1 mm wide.
Distribution
Native of east and southern tropical Africa, sometimes naturalized in N1, S1 and S2
Ecology
Apparently wild and forming thickets in gullies; 200–1310 m.
Vernacular
Dano (Somali)

[FSOM]
Use
Cultivated, widely used throughout the tropics as a hedge-plant.

Native to:

Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Comoros, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Rwanda, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Jawa, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Line Is., Malaya, Marianas, Mexico Central, Myanmar, Puerto Rico, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Australia, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wake I.

Euphorbia tirucalli L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2003 Baron, R. [6950], Madagascar K000185113
Jan 1, 2003 Baron, R. [6995], Madagascar K000185112
Jan 1, 2003 Baron, R. [6750], Madagascar K000185114
Apr 1, 1971 Leach, L.C. [14129B], South Africa K000317981
Apr 1, 1971 Leach, L.C. [14463], Zimbabwe K000317983
Apr 1, 1971 Leach, L.C. [14463], Zimbabwe K000317982
Oct 1, 1959 Welwitsch [630], Angola K000253092
Oct 1, 1959 Gossweiler [474], Angola K000253093 syntype
Oct 1, 1959 Rattray [s.n.], Angola K000253094 syntype
Bally, P.R.O. [E14], Kenya 16754.000
Eyles, F., Zimbabwe 16755.000
Lighthouse Keeper, Mozambique 16757.000
Faulkner, H. [3014], Tanzania 25792.000
Faulkner, H. [3088], Tanzania 25827.000
Greenway, P.J. [6655], Tanzania 2606.000
Drummond, R.B. [3330], Tanzania 2607.000
Tweedie [2101], Kenya 2608.000
Andrews, F.W. [Bally 12393], Sudan 2609.000
Gossweiler, J. [474], Angola 2610.000
Ash [459], Ethiopia 26332.030
Archbold, M.E. [880], Tanzania 33210.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [7289], Tanzania 4141.000
Drummond, R.B. [3365], Tanzania 4144.000
Faulkner, H. [1548], Tanzania 5231.000
Wild, H. [4712], Zimbabwe 5232.000
[L.Muriel] [L 67] K000252854
Busse, W. [250], Tanzania K000252988
Speke, Tanzania K000252989
Scott, L. [s.n.], Malawi K000253091 syntype
Phillipson, P.B. [2310], Madagascar K000185124
Leach, L.C. [11885], Mozambique K000317984
Phillipson, P.B. [2480], Madagascar K000185125
Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000253090 syntype
Phillipson, P.B. [2388], Madagascar K000185126

First published in Sp. Pl.: 452 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Rebmann, N. (2007). Les Euphorbes de Madagascar Succulentes Spécial: 1-48.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2019). http://collectaneabotanica.revistas.csic.es/index.php/collectaneabotanica/article/view/280/391 epublication.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 3: 1-634. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by S. Carter [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
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© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
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Plants and People Africa
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