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This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Iran to S. China and Indo-China.
Euphorbia indica

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, spreading or erect with branches to 50(–100) cm. long, the whole plant including the capsule at least when young sparsely pilose, more so on young growth, and often purplish tinged.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves ovate, to 3(–5) × 1.5(–2.5) cm., base obliquely rounded, apex rounded, margin obscurely toothed, upper surface sometimes almost glabrous, glaucous especially the lower surface; petiole to 3 mm. long; stipules broadly triangular, laciniate, to 1.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Cyathia
Cyathia in terminal and axillary capitate cymes to 1.5 cm. in diameter on peduncles to 3 cm. long, subtended by a pair of small leafy bracts; cyathial peduncles to 2 mm. long; bracts linear, to 2.5 mm. long. Cyathia ± 1 × 1 mm., with cup-shaped involucres; glands 4, minute, rounded, green, with appendages varying in size to 1 mm. in diameter, white; lobes acutely triangular, 0.5 mm. long.
sex Male
Male flowers:bracteoles linear; stamens 1.25 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower:ovary shortly pedicellate; styles 0.5 mm. long, suberect, bifid almost to the base. Male flowers:bracteoles linear; stamens 1.25 mm. long.
sex Female
Female flower:ovary shortly pedicellate; styles 0.5 mm. long, suberect, bifid almost to the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule exserted on a reflexed pedicel 1.5 mm. long, acutely 3-lobed, 1.5 × 2 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds oblong-conical, 1 × 0.75 mm., reddish brown, with obscure transverse ridges.
Figures
Fig. 77/1–3.
Habitat
In damp grassland on seasonally waterlogged, usually black cotton soils, or near permanent water; 0–1330 m.
Distribution
K1 K3 K4 K5 K7 P T3 T4 T6 T8 U1 U2 U3 U4 a common weed introduced originally from India

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, spreading or erect, with branches to 50(100) cm long, the whole plant, including the capsule at least when young, sparsely pilose, rarely almost glabrous, often purplish tinged.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with a petiole to 3 mm long; stipules to 1.5 mm long, broadly triangular, laciniate; lamina to 3 × 1.5 cm, ovate, apex rounded, base obliquely rounded, margin obscurely toothed, upper surface often glabrous, rarely both surfaces glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes terminal and axillary, capitate to 1.5 cm in diameter on peduncles to 3 cm long, subtended by a pair of small leaf-like bracts, the whole shortly pilose to glabrous; cyathial peduncles to 2 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts to 2.5 mm long, linear.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Cyathia
Cyathia c. 1 × 1 mm with cup-shaped involucres; glands 4, minute, rounded, green, with appendages varying in size to 1 mm in diameter, white; lobes 0.5 mm long, acutely triangular.
sex Male
Male flowers: bracteoles linear; stamens 1.25 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower: ovary pilose or with at least a few short hairs, rarely entirely glabrous; styles 0.5 mm long, suberect, bifid almost to the base. Male flowers: bracteoles linear; stamens 1.25 mm long.
sex Female
Female flower: ovary pilose or with at least a few short hairs, rarely entirely glabrous; styles 0.5 mm long, suberect, bifid almost to the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule exserted on a reflexed pedicel 1.5 mm long, 1.5 × 2 mm, acutely 3-lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1 × 0.75 mm, oblong-conical, with obscure transverse ridges, reddish-brown.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, spreading or erect, sparsely pilose, often tinged with purple
Morphology Leaves
Leaves ovate, 1–3 x 0.5–1.5 cm, margin obscurely toothed; petiole 1–3 mm long; stipules triangular, deeply toothed, to 1.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Cyathia in capitate cymes to 1.5 cm in diam. on peduncles 5–30 mm long, subtended by a pair of small leafy bracts Cyathia 1 mm in diam.; glands minute, green, with appendages varying in size to 1 mm in diam., white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles bifid almost to the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule well-exserted on a recurved pedicel, acutely 3-lobed, 1.5 x 2 mm, pilose, often sparsely so when mature
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds oblong-conical, 1 x 0.75 mm, with obscure transverse ridges, reddish brown to grey.
Distribution
C2; S1–3 a common weed of tropical eastern Africa introduced originally from India.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–250 m.
Vernacular
Geed caanood (Somali)

Native to:

Afghanistan, Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, India, Iran, Lebanon-Syria, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, West Himalaya

Introduced into:

Aldabra, Angola, Botswana, Comoros, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf States, Iraq, Kuwait, Malawi, Mozambique, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Sudan, Transcaucasus, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Euphorbia indica Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Tweedie, E.M. [1888], Uganda 2067.000
Tweedie [2253], Uganda 25997.000
Kotschy [154] K000252786 syntype

First published in Encycl. 2: 423 (1788)

Accepted by

  • (2021). https://www.mapress.com/j/pt/article/view/phytotaxa.485.1.1/42845 epublication.
  • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Pahlevani, A.H. & Riina, R. (2011). A synopsis of Euphorbia subgen. Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) in Iran Annales Botanici Fennici 48: 304-316.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Yang, Y., Riina, R., Morawetz, J.J., Haevermans, T., Aubriot, X. & Berry, P.E. (2012). Molecular phylogenetics and classification of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) Taxon 61: 764-789.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Pahlevani, A.H. & Riina, R. (2011). A synopsis of Euphorbia subgen. Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) in Iran Annales Botanici Fennici 48: 304-316.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by S. Carter [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Pickering, H. & Awale, A. I. (2018). Introduction to plants in Central Somaliland. Ponte Invisibile, Redsea Cultural Foundation.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Boiss. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 22 (1862).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan2: 71 (1952).
  • Lam., Encycl. Méth. Bot. 2: 423 (1786).
  • Raju & Rao in Ind. J. Bot. 2: 202 (1979).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/