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This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula to Tropical & Subtropical Asia.
Acalypha indica L.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
A small annual to robust woody herb or subshrub up to 2.5 m., although commonly much less.
Morphology Stem
Stems sparingly to evenly crisped-puberulous or tomentose, sometimes also evenly to densely pubescent-pilose.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves arranged in a mosaic pattern; petioles up to 12 cm. long, hairy like the stems; blade ovate, often broadly so, to rhomboid-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2–9 cm. long, 1–5 cm. wide, acute or subacute, cuneate, serrate, membranous, 5-nerved at the base, lateral nerves 4(–5) pairs, sparingly pubescent or almost glabrous above, evenly pubescent to almost glabrous, except for the puberulous midrib and main nerves, beneath.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules linear-filiform, 2 mm. long, sparingly pubescent and also with one or two gland-tipped hairs on the margin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences spicate, axillary, solitary or paired, up to 10 cm. long, though usually not exceeding 6 cm., the lower three-quarters ♀ and usually laxly flowered, the upper quarter ♂, densely flowered, often terminated by an allomorphic ♀ flower on a long pedicel, or else the inflorescence ± completely ♀; axis crisped-puberulous; ♂ bracts minute; ♀ bracts transversely ovate to suborbicular, 0.5–1.1 cm. long, 1–1.6 cm. wide, repand-dentate, ribbed, sparingly pubescent or subglabrous and then only puberulous along the ribs, 1–2(–5)-flowered.
sex Male
Male flowers subsessile or shortly pedicellate; buds 4-gonous, slightly granulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, triangular-ovate, 1 mm. long, ciliate; ovary subtrilobate, 0.5 mm. diameter, sparingly pubescent above; styles united at the base, 2 mm. long, laciniate, white. Male flowers subsessile or shortly pedicellate; buds 4-gonous, slightly granulate. Allomorphic ♀ flowers obovoid, with 2 lateral fimbriate tubes, pubescent.
sex Female
Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, triangular-ovate, 1 mm. long, ciliate; ovary subtrilobate, 0.5 mm. diameter, sparingly pubescent above; styles united at the base, 2 mm. long, laciniate, white. Allomorphic ♀ flowers obovoid, with 2 lateral fimbriate tubes, pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit trilobate, 1.5 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, tubercled, pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid, 1.3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, ± smooth, grey, with a flattened linear caruncle. Allomorphic ♀ flowers each producing 1 seed, identical to those of the trimerous flowers.
Habitat
Local water-catchment areas in dry country, along rivers, base of outcrops and scarps, also ruderal; 0–1330 m.
Distribution
± throughout the Old World tropics, introduced into the warmer parts of the New World K1 K2 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T2 T3 T6 U1 Z

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Usually an erect annual to 60 cm or very rarely a robust sub­hrub to 2.5 m; stems and petioles hairy
Morphology Leaves
Leaves clustered at stem tip; petiole up to 12 cm; blades ovate to rhomboid or lanceolate, 2–9 x 1–5 cm, base cuneate, tip acute or subacute, serrate, hairy to subglabrous except for veins; stipules 2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes up to 6(–10) cm long, lower 3/4 female, lax-flowered, rest male, often with terminal long-pedicellate allomorphic flower, or entirely female
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Female bracts 5–12 x 10–14 mm, repand-dentate, ribbed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Allomorphic flowers smooth except for 2 fimbriate rings near apex, uniformly pubescent Male flowers 4-angular, slightly granular Female flowers: sepals 3, 1 mm long; ovary pubescent; styles 2 mm long, white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 1.5 x 2 mm, tuberculate, pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid, 1.3 x 1 mm, grey; caruncle flattened, linear.
Distribution
N1–3; C2; S1, 2 ± throughout drier Old World tropics, introduced into New World.
Ecology
Altitude range 15–2130 m.
Note
A. somalensis is placed here on the strength of Pax’s own later (1924) treatment; it is known only from the protologue.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

Morphology General Habit
An erect usually simple-stemmed annual, or sometimes a woody subperennial herb or subshrub up to 1.2 m tall.
Morphology Stem
Stems ribbed, and pubescent along the ribs.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petioles up to 8.5 cm long.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Leaf blades 2–7 × 1–5 cm, ovate to ovate-rhombic, acute or subacute at the apex, serrate except towards the base, cuneate at the base, membranous, sparingly puberulous or pubescent to subglabrous or glabrous on both surfaces, sometimes more evenly puberulous along the midrib and main nerves beneath, 5-nerved from the base; lateral nerves in 4–5 pairs.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules 2 mm long, linear-filiform, ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences up to 9 cm long, spicate, axillary, solitary or paired, mostly female with a few male flowers above, or else all female, often terminated by a long-pedicellate allomorphic female flower; male bracts minute; female bracts accrescent to up to 1.2 × 1.4 cm, transversely ovate to suborbicular, repand-dentate, many ribbed, sparingly pubescent along the ribs, otherwise usually ± glabrous, up to 5-flowered.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers subsessile; buds tetragonal, slightly granulate, yellowish-green; anthers white. Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, 1 mm long, triangular-ovate, ciliate; ovary 0.5 mm in diameter, somewhat 3-lobed, sparingly pubescent above; styles 2 mm long, united at the base, laciniate, white. Allomorphic female flowers obovoid, with a pair of fimbriate whorls near the top, pubescent.
sex Male
Male flowers subsessile; buds tetragonal, slightly granulate, yellowish-green; anthers white.
sex Female
Female flowers sessile; sepals 3, 1 mm long, triangular-ovate, ciliate; ovary 0.5 mm in diameter, somewhat 3-lobed, sparingly pubescent above; styles 2 mm long, united at the base, laciniate, white. Allomorphic female flowers obovoid, with a pair of fimbriate whorls near the top, pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits 1.5 × 2 mm, 3-lobed, tuberculate, pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1.3 × 1 mm, ovoid, ± smooth, grey, with a flattened linear caruncle.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Botswana, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Cuba, Leeward Is., Madagascar, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Windward Is.

English
Indian acalypha, Poison bush

Acalypha indica L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2008 Palmer, E.W. [46], Guerrero K000476855
42522.000

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1003 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Patzelt, A., Harrison, T., Knees, S.G. & Hartley, L.A. (2014). Studies in the flora of Arabia: XXXI. New records from the Sultanate of Oman Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 161-180.
  • Sagun, V.G., Levin, G.A. & van Welzen, P.C. (2010). Revision and phylogeny of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia Blumea 55: 21-60.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Sagun, V.G., Levin, G.A. & van Welzen, P.C. (2010). Revision and phylogeny of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia Blumea 55: 21-60.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: M. G. Gilbert [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 98 (1921).
  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 215 (1974).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 52, t. 19 (1952).
  • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 903 (1912).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 1003 (1753).
  • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 868 (1866).
  • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(16): 33 (1924).
  • Pax in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 239 (1895).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/