1. Family: Urticaceae Juss.
    1. Pilea Lindl.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Pacific, Southern America, Northern America and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Urticaceae, I. Friis University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, monoecious or rarely dioecious by abortion, sometimes with somewhat lignified basal parts or suffrutescent, mostly with juicy, translucent and turgescent stems, which may occasionally have scattered glandular cells in epidermis
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, petiolate, the two of a pair sometimes of unequal size; stipules intrapetiolar, fused completely to the apex, caducous or persistent; lamina entire, serrate or dentate, triplinerved; cystoliths linear, rarely punctiform
    Inflorescences
    Male inflorescences usually develop before or below the ♀ Inflorescences axillary or apparently terminal, unisexual or bisexual, pedunculate or sessile, bracted at least when young, in dichotomous cymes or in dense capitular clusters, either single or in branched paniculate inflorescences
    Male
    Male flowers usually 4-merous, rarely (2–)3-merous, often with tepals fused at base, mostly appendiculate (with a small, horn-like appendage at apex or subapical); rudimentary pistillode poorly developed or completely absent
    Flowers
    Female flowers usually 3-merous, of which the tepals ± fused at base, the middle perianth-segment is usually the largest and ± appendiculate at apex, the lateral ones much smaller; a scale, representing a staminode, present inside each perianth-segment, hyaline, at first inflexed, reflexed at maturity and forcibly ejecting the achene; ovary erect, with apical sessile penicillate stigma Male flowers usually 4-merous, rarely (2–)3-merous, often with tepals fused at base, mostly appendiculate (with a small, horn-like appendage at apex or subapical); rudimentary pistillode poorly developed or completely absent
    Female
    Female flowers usually 3-merous, of which the tepals ± fused at base, the middle perianth-segment is usually the largest and ± appendiculate at apex, the lateral ones much smaller; a scale, representing a staminode, present inside each perianth-segment, hyaline, at first inflexed, reflexed at maturity and forcibly ejecting the achene; ovary erect, with apical sessile penicillate stigma
    Fruits
    Achene compressed, ovate or elliptic; endosperm scarce
    Seeds
    Embryo with large cotyledons.
    [FZ]

    Urticaceae, I. Friis. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, monoecious or dioecious by abortion.
    Stem
    Stems juicy, translucent and turgescent; stinging hairs absent.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, petiolate or subsessile, each of a pair unequal in size, triplinerved, usually with serrate margins.
    Stipules
    Stipules intrapetiolar, almost completely fused.
    Cystoliths
    Cystoliths linear.
    Flowers
    Male flowers (3)4(5)-merous, tepals corniculate with a dorsal horn-like appendage; stamens as many as the tepals; ovary rudimentary. Flowers in unisexual or bisexual cymes or panicles. Female flowers with 3 tepals, one considerably larger than the other two, usually cuculate or with a dorsal horn-like appendage. Three scale-like staminodes present, inflexed, but ultimately reflexing and thus ejecting the achene. Ovary symmetrical, erect, with a sessile, penicillate stigma.
    Fruits
    Achene ovoid, ± smooth, compressed.
    Seeds
    Embryo with large cotyledons.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Buryatiya, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chile Central, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Manchuria, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Chagos Archipelago, Fiji, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea-Bissau, Hawaii, Maldives, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Seychelles, Solomon Is., Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuvalu, Wallis-Futuna Is., Yugoslavia

    Pilea Lindl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 5, 1985 Ule, E. [5874], Brazil K000973387
    Dawkins, H.C. [770], Uganda 2677.000
    Johns, R.J. [9081], New Guinea 70607.000
    Dusén, P. [6964], Brazil K000973388
    Pires, J.M. [50540], Brazil K000973389
    de Kok, R. et al [1221], Papua New Guinea K000612489
    Burchell [3330], Brazil K000973391

    First published in Coll. Bot.: t. 4 (1821)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 2: 267.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Friis in Kew Bull.44: 557–600 (1989) nom. conserv.
    • Coll. Bot. t. 4 (1821).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Friis in KB. 44(4) (1989), ined., nom. conserv.
    • G.F.P. 2: 185 (1967)
    • Engl. in E. & P. Pf. 3(1): 108 (1888)
    • G.P. 3:384 (1880)
    • Coll. Bot, t. 4 (1821)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0