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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World to China.

[FTEA]

Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Habit
Herbs, aquatic or in marshes, often aromatic on bruising, glabrous, pubescent or glandular.
Stem
Stems erect, simple or more usually branched, ± submerged, prostrate and rooting at nodes
Leaves
Leaves of two types with one or both types on the same plant: submerged leaves finely divided, verticillate; aerial leaves undivided or variously laciniate, opposite or verticillate; ± punctate
Flowers
Flowers sessile or pedicellate, solitary in the axils or in lax or compact, terminal or axillary spikes or racemes; bracteoles 0 or 2
Calyx
Calyx tubular, 5-lobed, lobes unequal, tube with 0–5 prominent veins or striate with more than 10 prominent veins present at maturity
Corolla
Corolla tubular or funnel-shaped, 5-lobed, bilabiate; upper (adaxial) lip outside in bud, entire or 2-lobed; lower (abaxial) lip 3-lobed
Stamens
Stamens 4, didynamous, included, posterior pair shorter; anthers free, loculi stipitate
Gynoecium
Ovary glabrous; stigma bilamellate;  style filiform, deflexed at the apex
Fruits
Capsule ellipsoid to globose, septicidally 4-valved
Seeds
Seeds numerous.
Note
All the species represented here are heterophyllous, bearing both aerial entire leaves and, in an aquatic state, divided filamentous submerged leaves; as such, all occur in section Limnophila (see Philcox in K.B. 24: 107 (1970)).

[FZ]

Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

Habit
Annual or perennial, aquatic or marsh herbs, frequently aromatic when bruised, glabrous, pubescent or glandular.
Stem
Stems erect, prostrate or creeping, rooting at nodes, simple or more usually, branched.
Leaves
Leaves, when submerged in truly aquatic species, laciniate, pinnatifid to capillary-multifid, glabrous; aerial leaves opposite to verticillate, sessile or petiolate, entire to serrate, laciniate or pinnately divided, where undivided, pinnately or parallel nerved; punctate.
Flowers
Flowers sessile or pedicellate, solitary-axillary or in lax or compact, terminal or axillary spikes or racemes; bracteoles 0 or 2.
Calyx
Calyx tubular, 5-lobed; lobes sub-equal or with adaxial lobe enlarged; tube terete with 0–5 prominent nerves or striate with more than 10 prominent nerves present at maturity.
Corolla
Corolla tubular or infundibuliform, 5-lobed, bilabiate; adaxial lip outside in bud, entire or bilobed; abaxial lip three-lobed, erect or spreading.
Stamens
Stamens 4, included, didynamous, posterior pair shorter; anthers free, loculi stipitate.
Ovary
Ovary glabrous.
Stigma
Stigma bilamellate.
Style
Style filiform, deflexed at apex.
Fruits
Capsule ellipsoid to globose, septicidally 4-valved; valves bifid.
Seeds
Seeds small, numerous.

Doubtfully present in:

Northern Provinces

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, India, Inner Mongolia, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Korea, Laos, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Bolivia, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, New Caledonia, Texas

Limnophila R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Milne-Redhead, E. [2662], Zambia 35227.000
Edwards, P.J. [4097], New Guinea 70596.000

First published in Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 442 (1810)

Accepted by

  • Mill, R. & al. (2015). Flora of Pakistan 220: 1-331. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 316. Nom. cons.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Philcox in Kew Bull.24: 101–170 (1970).
  • Prodr.: 442 (1810) nom. cons.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • K.B. 24: 101–170 (1970), nom. conserv.
  • Prodr.: 442 (1810)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/