Skip to main content
This genus is accepted, and its native range is New World, Angola to S .Africa, Madagascar, NE. Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Australia to SW. Pacific.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FZ]

Violaceae, N. K. B. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Herbs, shrublets or shrubs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or opposite, petiolate or sessile, entire or ± serrate; stipules usually small and persistent, rarely foliaceous or deciduous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of single flowers in the leaf axils or, more rarely, terminal racemes or axillary racemes or clusters; pedicels articulated.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers zygomorphic.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals almost equal, without a basal appendage.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals unequal, the anterior one smaller, or usually much larger, than the others, unguiculate, with a short basal spur.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens with filaments of varying length, free or ± coherent, the two anterior ones (and rarely also the lateral ones) with free or coherent appendages which extend into the spur and may secrete nectar ("spur-appendages"); anthers free or coherent, with a thin dorsal prolongation of the connective ("connective-appendage").
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary with 3 placentae each bearing (2) 3–? ovules; style bent downwards and ± thickened towards the apex, entire; stigma terminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a loculicidal capsule with 3 elastic valves, keeled and thickened along the suture.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds spheroidal-ovoid, smooth or ribbed or pitted, with abundant endosperm and a small aril.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Herbs, subshrubs or small shrubs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, opposite or clustered; stipules usually small
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers zygomorphic, solitary or clustered; pedicels articulate, with a pair of bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Sepals subequal. Petals unequal, the lowermost one usually much larger than the others and clawed, with a short basal spur
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens unequal, free or somewhat united, the 2 lower each with a nectar-secreting appendage extending into the spur; connective-appendages thin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a 3-valved capsule
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds striate or pitted, usually with a small aril.
Distribution
Some 45-50 species throughout the tropics.

[FTEA]

Violaceae, C. Grey-wilson. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1986

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs or occasionally shrubs with simple or much-branched stems
Morphology Leaves
Leaves spirally arranged, occasionally opposite or fasciculate, petiolate or sessile, the lamina simple, entire or toothed; stipules small and persistent, rarely foliaceous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers zygomorphic, solitary in the leaf-axils, rarely terminal or in clusters; pedicels articulate in the middle or the upper half, with an opposite or subopposite pair of bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals subequal, without a basal appendage
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals unequal, the lowermost one (anterior) usually much larger than the others and clawed, with a short basal spur
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens unequal, free or somewhat coherent, the lower pair each with a short nectar-secreting appendage which extends into the spur; anthers with a thin dorsal connective-appendage
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a loculicidal capsule with 3 contractile valves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds pitted or striate, usually with a small aril.

Native to:

Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Arkansas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Cape Provinces, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Florida, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Maryland, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Namibia, New Caledonia, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Somalia, South Carolina, Swaziland, Tennessee, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Yemen

Extinct in:

Connecticut

Hybanthus Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132288
Stannard, B. [4641], Brazil K001215451
Giulietti, A.M. [5461], Brazil K001215452
Stannard, B. [s.n.], Brazil K001215450
Sano, P.T. [CFCR/14490], Brazil K001215456
Heringer, E.P. [3325], Brazil K001215457
Harley, R.M. [25455], Brazil K001215454
Sano, P.T. [14447], Brazil K001215453
Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001215447
Milliken, W. [361], Brazil K001215445
Dusén, P. [9908], Brazil K001215443
Lima, J. [813], Brazil K001215444
Dusén, P. [7560], Brazil K001215446
Glocker [31], Brazil K001215448
Harley, R.M. [55724], Brazil K001215458
Giulietti, A.M. [1686], Brazil K001215441
Guedes, M.L. [5509], Brazil K001215449
Harley, R.M. [s.n.], Brazil K001215455
Glaziou [9617], Brazil K001215442
Eiten, G. [5952], Brazil K001215459

First published in Enum. Syst. Pl.: 2 (1760)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6 Scientific Data 8: 215.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 1: 105, as Ionidium Vent.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Enum. Syst. Pl. Ins. Carib.: 2, 17 (1760).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Enum. Syst. Pl. Ins. Carib.: 2, 17 (1760)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0