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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics.


Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Leaves opposite, entire or dentate, variously dissected or multisect in submerged species, sometimes punctate
Flowers axillary, solitary or in racemes; pedicels with or without bracteoles
Calyx unequally 5-lobed, outer lobes broadest, inner narrow
Corolla almost regular, with all lobes equal or the upper 2 connate; corolla tube short
Stamens 4, didynamous, included
Stigma terminal, usually shortly 2-lobed
Capsule globose or ovoid, 2 or 4-celled, loculicidal or septicidal
Seeds numerous.
It is surprising that the widespread Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell has not been recorded from the Flora area, but is to be expected there
This is a creeping herb of moist and wet places with solitary, axillary white or pale blue flowers. Perennial or annual herbs, erect, diffuse or submerged aquatics, usually glabrous


M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008]

Annual or perennial herbs, usually glabrous, rarely glandular pubescent or villous
Leaves opposite, sessile to subsessile, palmately veined and with entire to dentate or crenate margin
Inflorescence terminal, racemose, leafy, bracteoles present below calyx or absent; flowers sessile to pedicellate
Calyx 5-lobed almost to the base, upper lobe largest, 2 lateral lobes usually smallest
Corolla subrotate, 2-lipped, tubular or campanulate, subequally 5-lobed
Stamens 4, 2 long and 2 short, included, the lower pair usually larger than the upper; anthers with parallel contiguous thecae
Ovary glabrous, with straight filiform style; stigma usually 2-lobed
Capsule with loculicidal or rarely septicidal dehiscence
Seeds numerous, coarsely reticulate, with longitudinal ridges.
About 50-60 species, pantropical.


Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

Annual herbs, erect, prostrate or decumbent, or floating, mostly glabrous.
Leaves opposite, entire or variously dentate to crenate, or capillary-divided in aquatic species.
Flowers axillary, solitary, pedicellate or sessile, bracteate or ebracteate.
Calyx 5-partite; sepals imbricate, posterior broadest, lateral usually very narrow.
Corolla bilabiate, upper lip bilobed or emarginate, lower trilobed.
Stamens four, didynamous, perfect, included.
Style apically dilated, entire or bilobed.
Ovules many.
Capsule ovoid to globose, 2 or 4 loculicidal or septicidal.
Seeds small, numerous.

Doubtfully present in:


Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alberta, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South Dakota, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Greece, Lesser Sunda Is., Marquesas, Portugal, Spain

Bacopa Aubl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Spruce, R. [s.n.] K000202439
Campelo, M.J. [19], Brazil K001139024
Andrade, K. [241], Brazil K001139023
Burchell, W.J. [4773], Brazil K001139027
Schessl, M. [s.n.], Brazil K001139026
Gwynne-Vaughan, D.T. [15], Brazil K001139025
Glaziou, A. [21827], Brazil K001139029
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132492
Burchell [4419], Brazil K001139028
Burchell [5868], Brazil K001139030

First published in Hist. Pl. Guiane 1: 128 (1775)

Accepted by

  • de las Mercedes Sosa, M., Moroni, P. & O'Leary, N. (2018). A taxonomic revision of the genus Bacopa (Gratioleae, Plantaginaceae) in Argentina Phytotaxa 336: 1-27.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.


Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 319.
  • Pl. Guian. 1: 128, t. 49 (1775), nom. cons.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Pl. Guian.1: 128, t. 49 (1775) nom. cons.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by E. Fischer [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Pl. Guian. 1: 128, t. 49 (1775), nom. conserv.

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.