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This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Europe to Indian Subcontinent.
Cyperus longus L.

[FTEA]

Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

Type
Type: Southern Europe, “habitat in Italiae, Galliae paludibus”, lectotype: Herb. A. van Royen No. 909.89–686 (L, lecto., chosen by Kukkonen in Cafferty & Jarvis (ed.), Taxon 53: 179 (2004) )
Morphology General Habit
Perennial, fairly robust, up to 100 cm tall, with rather thick horizontal, often curved, scale-covered stolons and only slightly swollen culm bases.
Morphology Culms
Culms few, 25–95 cm long, 1.9–4 mm wide, trigonous above, terete below, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves few, withering early, up to 50 cm long. Leaf sheath pale to dark reddish-brown, 3–10 cm long. Leaf blade flat, 16–40 cm long, 3–5 mm wide, slightly scabrid on margin and primary vein, apex acuminate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucral bracts leaf-like, erect to spreading, 3–5, lowermost 6–28 cm long, 2–5.4 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a simple to compound anthela, primary branches 4–8, 0.5–10 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets in almost digitate spikes, sessile and at the end of primary branches, 3–15 spikelets per spike, linear-lanceolate, 8–25 mm long, 1.2–2 mm wide, rachilla straight.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes reddish brown with narrow uncoloured margin, ovate, 2.7–3.5 mm long, 1.4–1.7 mm wide, keel green, apex obtuse
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 2.9–3.8 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 1.4–2.2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet brown, ellipsoid, trigonous, 1.4–1.6 mm long, 0.5–0.75 mm wide, almost smooth.
Ecology
Lake edges, black cotton soils, ditches, periodically flooded depressions in grassland or bushland, in swamps and temporary pools; sea-level to 1600 m
Conservation
Least Concern (LC)
Note
Haines & Lye state this differs from C. rotundus only in the faintly swollen stem base and somewhat shorter glumes. Very polymorphic.
Distribution
Range: Widespread in Africa; S Europe Flora districts: U1 U2 K1 K2 K4 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T8

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Fairly robust perennial with rather thick horizontal, often curved, scale-covered 3–10 mm thick stolons and only slightly swollen stem-bases
Morphology Stem
Stems 40–90 cm long and 1–4 mm thick, glabrous, triangular above, terete below
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades few, withering early, the largest 15–30 cm long and 3–5 mm wide; leaf-sheaths light brown to dark reddish brown
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spike 1–3 x 1–5 cm with 3–12 spreading spikelets Inflorescence a 5–13 cm long and 2–10 cm wide anthela consisting of 1 sessile and 4–8 stalked spikes on 0.5–10 cm long peduncles, with or without secondary spikes from the base of the primary spikes; inflorescence-bracts 3–7, leafy, erect or spreading, scabrid on margin and midrib, the largest 6–12 cm long and 2–5 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 10–25 x 1–2 mm, linear-lanceolate, reddish brown with 8–20 flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 2–3 mm long, ovate, light to dark reddish brown with a narrow uncoloured margin and a greenish midrib ending below the obtuse tip; nerves very slender
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 3-branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet 1.3–1.5 x 0.5–0.6 mm, elliptic, triangular, brown; surface almost smooth.
Distribution
S1, 3 widespread in Africa, southern Europe and western Asia.
Ecology
Altitude below 500 m.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Corse, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Madagascar, Madeira, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Socotra, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Tristan da Cunha, Western Australia

English
Sweet cyperus, Water rush

Cyperus longus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
de Heldreich [s.n.], Turkey K000950351
Sitensis, P. [872], Cyprus K000950354
de Heldreich [s.n.], Turkey K000950353
Sitensis, P. [872], Cyprus K000950355
Kotschy, T. [771], Cyprus K000950356
de Heldreich [s.n.], Turkey K000950352

First published in Sp. Pl.: 45 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Adolphy, K. & al. (2021). Beiträge zur Flora Nordhein-Westfalens aus dem Jahr 2020 Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins 12: 199-278.
  • Browning, J. & al. (2020). Flora Zambesiaca 14: 1-455. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Govaerts, R. & Simpson, D.A. (2007). World Checklist of Cyperaceae. Sedges: 1-765. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Hoenselaar, K., Verdcourt, B. & Beentje, H. (2010). Cyperaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-466.
  • Jermy, C., Simpson, D., Foley, M. & Porter, M. (2007). Sedges of the British Isles. B.S.B.I. Handbook No. 1, ed. 3: 1-554. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2006). A contribution to the flora of Wadi Abdur (Dhofar, Soutern Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 61: 253-260.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Adolphy, K. & al. (2021). Beiträge zur Flora Nordhein-Westfalens aus dem Jahr 2020 Jahrbuch des Bochumer Botanischen Vereins 12: 199-278.
  • Browning, J. & al. (2020). Flora Zambesiaca 14: 1-455. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2006). A contribution to the flora of Wadi Abdur (Dhofar, Soutern Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 61: 253-260.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by K. A. Lye [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • E.P. 4, 20 (101): 97 (1936)
  • F.T.A. 8: 366 (1902)
  • Fl. Eth. 6: 450, fig. 212.88 (1997).
  • Fl. Somalia 4: 121 (1995)
  • Haines & Lye, Sedges & Rushes E. Afr.: 189, fig. 369 (1983)
  • Sp. Pl.: 45 (1753)

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/