1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum laxum Spreng.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. & S. Brazil to NE. Argentina.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 850 - 2800 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Trepadora
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Uruguay, Montevideo, Sellow s.n. (?B†, holo.)
    Habit
    Herbaceous evergreen climber to 5 m high, often rooting by runners;
    Stem
    Stems slender, sparsely pilose with short simple eglandular hairs, denser on young stems and around nodal areas, usually mixed with glands, glabrescent on older parts
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, sometimes coriaceous, dark green, ovate to hastate, 1.5–5.4(–6) × (0.6–)1.4–2.8 cm, bases cordate to truncate, simple to compound - often differing according to stem position, young leaves often deeply divided but some leaves unlobed, margins usually entire with pair of basal lanceolate lobes, apices acute; venation prominent, surfaces glabrescent with sparse short hairs and stalked glands on veins and midribs, denser on lower surfaces with prominent hairy domatia in axils of lowermost veins and midribs; petioles (0.4–)1–2.6 cm, curved to help climbing or twining
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences forked, terminal or axillary lax panicles or cymes, up to 20-flowered; flowers fragrant; peduncles erect, 1–2.5 cm long in flower, to 2.7 cm long in fruit, sparsely pilose with stalked glands to glabrous; pedicels nodding and 6–16 mm long in flower, sparsely pilose to glabrous but often with dense stalked glands, spreading and 14–17 mm long in fruit, articulated basally
    Calyx
    Calyx cupulate/campanulate, 1.5–2.5 mm long; lobes broadly ovate to broadly triangular, 0.5–0.8 × 1.5–1.8 mm, acute/obtuse to apiculate, often with tufted pilose apices and a ciliate fringe to margins; persistent and 1.4–1.5 × 1.5–1.8 mm in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla white or tinged blue, rotate-stellate, 2.4–2.8 cm diameter, tube 1–1.2 mm long; lobes boat-shaped, 6–9 × 4–6 mm basally, with upturned apices and prominent venation, spreading after anthesis, with densely pilose margins and apical tufts externally. Stamens equal; filaments 1–1.8 mm long, glabrous but sometimes with stalked glands; anthers yellow to brownish, 3–4.5 × 0.8–1.2 mm, connivent
    Ovary
    Ovary 1.5–2 × 1–1.2 mm, glabrous; style straight, 6.5–8 × 0.3–0.4 mm basally, densely pilose with short hairs in lower part, exserted up to 3 mm; stigma clavate, 0.3–0.6 mm diameter, sometimes clasping the style
    Fruits
    Fruit borne erect on spreading pedicels, bluish, purple or blackish (also recorded as red in Australia), globose, 7–10 mm diameter, smooth, surrounded basally by adherent calyx lobes
    Seeds
    Seeds 10–32/berry, light to dark brown, ovoid, discoidal or orbicular, 2.6–3.2 × 2–2.8 mm, reticulate; sclerotic granules absent.
    Ecology
    Ornamental climber often cultivated in gardens and parks, found as escape in forests; 1600–2650 m
    Note
    Darwin (1867, pages 41–43) used “ S. jasminoides” as an example of a true leaf climber in his paper “On the movement and habits of Climbing Plants”; he illustrated the tendril-like petioles, and experimented on both the time taken for the petioles to clasp sticks or stems and the effect of weights on their revolution. According to Friis (2006) “ S. jasminoides” superficially resembles the indigenous forest climber S. bendirianum Dammer, but can easily be distinguished by the often coiling petioles, the usually hastate or truncate leaf-bases, and the tufts of hairs in the axils of the primary veins. The synonymy of S. boerhaviifolium (originally spelt with one a by Sendtner but with two aa’s by later authors including Dunal (1852), Kuntze (1898) and Morton (1976)) is based on Sendtner’s protologue and his plate which shows many features typical of “ S. jasminoides”, including the characteristic leaf shape with curved petioles, together with the typical inflorescence and floral morphology. Most of the specimens identified as S. boerhaviifolium from Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina also show these typical features, but some of those from Brazil are atypical with more ovate to rotund coriaceous leaves, without the curved petioles and dense domatia and sometimes with a dense long-haired pubescence. These might simply be indicative of an infraspecific variant, but clearly necessitate more analysis. Few synonyms of S. laxum have been included in this account, as this taxon is usually referred to as S. jasminoides in African literature. It is commonly known as the Potato Vine or -Climber and the Jasmine Nightshade. Several varieties and cultivars of “ S. jasminoides” have been recognised such as the white flowered var. album; the more floriferous var. floribundum; the larger and more robust inflorescenced var. grandiflorum and the white speckled leaved var. variegatum (fide Hepper, 1998).  Sendtner’s plate of the synonymous S. boerhaviifolium illustrates infructescences whereas no fruiting material has been encountered in the herbarium. Fruiting is also apparently rare in cultivated material. The fruiting measurements given above have been taken from specimens of the synonymous S. boerhaviifolium. Morton (1976) considered this a distinct species in Argentina, but apart from citing minutely pilose filaments and probable red berries, his distinguishing features are difficult to discern. Kuntze (1898) subdivided Paxton’s S. jasminoides into a several varieties and forms – all apparently from Bolivia. Morton (1976) synonymised some of these under S. boerhaviifolium var . boerhaviifolium whilst also describing a new variety var. calvum Morton, simultaneously mentioning that this might be conspecific with S. jasminoides Pax. var. boerhaviifolium. The latter is the only one of Kuntze’s varieties to been included here, and it is unclear if these variants occur naturally in Bolivia or were introduced – as were cultivated specimens seen from Colombia.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: K3 K4 T3 Range: Native of Brazil and Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina Range: Now widely cultivated in warm temperate and some tropical mountain regions, including Egypt, Ethiopia, South Africa, India, Australia where sparingly naturalised

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Paraguay, Uruguay

    Introduced into:

    Azores, Bolivia, Brazil West-Central, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, New South Wales, Pakistan, Peru, Queensland, Tanzania, Zimbabwe

    Solanum laxum Spreng. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2011 Ford, C.A. [s.n.], China K000658437
    Dec 1, 2010 Pedersen, T.M. [9255], Argentina K000545731
    Dec 1, 2010 Sobral, M. [4206], Brazil K000545747
    Dec 1, 2010 Schinini, A. [17440], Argentina K000545732
    Dec 1, 2010 Montes, J.E. [3299], Paraguay K000545743
    Dec 1, 2010 Lorentz, P.G. [s.n.], Argentina K000545730
    Dec 1, 2010 Lorentz, P.G. [188], Argentina K000545734
    Dec 1, 2010 Lorentz, P.G. [s.n.], Argentina K000545740
    Dec 1, 2010 Lorentz, P.G. [s.n.], Argentina K000545741
    Dec 1, 2010 Tweedie, J. [s.n.], Uruguay K000545735
    Dec 1, 2010 Sparre, B. [14], Argentina K000545733
    Dec 1, 2010 Berro, M.B. [4797], Uruguay K000545739
    Dec 1, 2010 Rambo, B. [45669], Brazil K000545745
    Dec 1, 2010 Rambo, B. [44283], Brazil K000545750
    Dec 1, 2010 Cruz, J.M. [229], Brazil K000545744
    Dec 1, 2010 Felippone, F. [3930], Uruguay K000545738
    Dec 1, 2010 Boelcke, O. [4843], Argentina K000545742
    Dec 1, 2010 Wasum, R. [1080], Brazil K000545746
    Dec 1, 2010 Gibert, E.J. [141], Uruguay K000545736
    Dec 1, 2010 Gibert, E.J. [5], Uruguay K000545737
    Dec 1, 2010 Fox, ? [182], Argentina K000545729
    Jan 1, 2010 Tweedie, J. [s.n.], Paraná K000545751 epitype
    Dec 1, 2009 Reitz, P.R. [13352], Brazil K000545752
    Oct 1, 2009 Glaziou, A.F.M. [8844], Brazil K000545748
    Jun 1, 2008 Schinini, A. [25460], Argentina K000196518
    Feb 1, 2008 Smith, L.B. [7796], Brazil K000545753
    Feb 1, 2008 Dusén, P. [8549], Brazil K000545754
    Jan 1, 2008 Sellow [15], Brazil K000590026 isotype
    Jan 1, 2007 Harley, R.M. [50631], Brazil K000196547
    Jan 1, 2007 Woolston, A.L. [1602], Paraguay K000196529
    Jan 1, 2007 Woolston, A.L. [1056], Paraguay K000196530
    Jan 1, 2007 Hatschbach, G. [12539], Brazil K000196543
    Jan 1, 2007 Krapovickas, A. [3067], Argentina K000196367
    Jan 1, 2007 Montes, J.E. [1545], Argentina K000196517
    Jan 1, 2007 Dusén, P. [1575b], Brazil K000196544
    Jan 1, 2007 Fiebrig, K. [5463a], Paraguay K000196542
    Jan 1, 2007 Morong, T. [s.n.], Paraguay K000196546
    Jan 1, 2007 Tweedie, J. [s.n.], Brazil K000196536
    Jan 1, 2007 Tweedie, J. [422], Brazil K000196540
    Jan 1, 2007 Jönsson, G. [894a], Brazil K000196545
    Jan 1, 2007 Schwarz, G.J. [6445], Argentina K000196515
    Jan 1, 2007 Tressens, S.G. [5596], Argentina K000196519
    Jan 1, 2007 Renvoize, S.A. [2911], Argentina K000196513
    Jan 1, 2007 Renvoize, S.A. [2911], Argentina K000196514
    Jan 1, 2007 Balansa, B. [2106], Paraguay K000196533
    Jan 1, 2007 Warming, J.E.B. [166], Brazil K000196535
    Jan 1, 2007 Hassler, É. [1625], Paraguay K000196532
    Jan 1, 2007 Hassler, É. [4131], Paraguay K000196534
    Jan 1, 2007 Ibarrola, T.S. [1001], Argentina K000196516
    Jan 1, 2007 Band, D.r. [s.n.], Brazil K000196538
    Jul 4, 1905 Matthew, K.M. [42889], India K000546082
    Jul 4, 1905 Rich, H.H. [930] K000546083
    Jul 4, 1905 Cramer, L.H. [4471], Sri Lanka K000546081
    Jul 4, 1905 Comanor, P.L. [904], Sri Lanka K000546080
    Jul 4, 1905 Cutting, C.I. [113] K000546084
    Jul 4, 1905 Krishnappa, D.G. [161], India K000546085
    Jul 2, 1905 Pedersen, T.M. [11442], Brazil K000545749
    Jul 2, 1905 Lindeman, J.C. [2837], Brazil K000438229
    Rodway, F.A. [388], Australia K001155226
    Woolston, A.L. [1505], Paraguay K000196531
    Schultes, R.E. [7082], Colombia K000658179
    Verdcourt [3026], Kenya K001169137
    Jayasuriya, A.H.M. [1458], Sri Lanka K001169132
    Gamble, J.S. [21397], India K001169134
    Gamble, J.S. [27135] K001169135
    Williamson, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001169126
    Glen, H.F. [3584], South Africa K001159267
    Theron, G.C. [1845], South Africa K001159265
    Sigara [251], Tanzania K001169136
    Foreau, G. [2640], India K001169133
    s.coll [H3235/66], United Kingdom K001169125
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001169127
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001169128
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001169129
    s.coll [162], France K001169131
    s.coll [s.n.], South Africa K001159266
    Sangwin, W. [s.n.] K001169130
    Biegel, A.M. [4734], Zimbabwe K001169138
    Solanum jasminoides 32828.000
    Summers, R.W. [s.n.], USA Solanum jasminoides K001159926

    First published in Syst. Veg. 1: 682 (1824)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F.Z. 8(4): 69 (2005).
    • Syst. Veg., 1: 682 (1824)

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0