Skip to main content
  1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Duranta L.
      1. Duranta erecta L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. U.S.A. to Tropical America.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Habit
    Spreading, drooping, trailing or subscandent often thorny shrub or small tree up to 6 m high;  branchlets slender, 4-angular or terete, young shoots appressed pubescent; spines paired, 0.8–2.7 cm long, axillary or inserted just above the axils, spreading, straight or slightly curved, very sharp Spreading, drooping, trailing or subscandent often thorny shrub or small tree up to 6 m high; branchlets slender, 4-angular or terete, young shoots appressed pubescent; spines paired, 0.8–2.7 cm long, axillary or inserted just above the axils, spreading, straight or slightly curved, very sharp.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or verticillate, petiolate; lamina 1.5–7(8) × 1–3(4) cm, ovate, obovate, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, acute or obtuse at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, entire or serrate on the margins above the middle, glabrous or finely appressed pubescent on both surfaces more densely so on the nerves; petiole 0.5–1.5 cm long, slender, appressed-pubescent Leaves opposite or verticillate, petiolate; lamina 1.5–7(8) × 1–3(4) cm, ovate, obovate, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, acute or obtuse at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, entire or serrate on the margins above the middle, glabrous or finely appressed pubescent on both surfaces more densely so on the nerves; petiole 0.5–1.5 cm long, slender, appressed-pubescent.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes many-flowered, 3–16 cm long, single or in lax panicles, the terminal raceme longer than the lateral ones; pedicels 1–5 mm long, alternate, opposite or subopposite; bracts and bracteoles 1.5–2 mm and 1 mm long respectively, linear, those of the lower flowers usually larger and leaf-like Racemes many-flowered, 3–16 cm long, single or in lax panicles, the terminal raceme longer than the lateral ones; pedicels 1–5 mm long, alternate, opposite or subopposite; bracts and bracteoles 1.5–2 mm and 1 mm long respectively, linear, those of the lower flowers usually larger and leaf-like.
    Filaments
    Filaments glandular-pubescent, c. 1.25 mm long
    Ecology
    In moist places, in riverine vegetation, gully forest and on granite outcrops, occasionally in miombo woodlands, often on termite mounds; 50–2000 m.
    Note
    Introduced as a garden ornamental now widespread as a scattered naturalized shrub or tree.  Known as the ‘golden dew drop’.
    Distribution
    Mozambique Native of tropical America but cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics. Malawi Zimbabwe Zambia District code: BOT N, BOT SE, BOT N, BOT C, BOT S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ MS, MOZ M. Botswana
    Calyx
    Calyx tube 3–4 mm long, ± sparsely appressed-puberulous; teeth up to 1 mm long, triangular with midrib produced as a mucro. Calyx tube 3–4 mm long, ± sparsely appressed-puberulous; teeth up to 1 mm long, triangular with midrib produced as a mucro
    Corolla
    Corolla lilac to violet-blue or sometimes white; tube longer than the calyx, curved, puberulous outside more densely so in the upper part, glandular-pubescent within; limb spreading, 7–9 mm in diameter, glandular-pubescent on the upper surface, densely puberulous beneath, lobes 3–5 × 2.5–3.5 mm, oblong to orbicular, densely puberulous. Corolla lilac to violet-blue or sometimes white; tube longer than the calyx, curved, puberulous outside more densely so in the upper part, glandular-pubescent within; limb spreading, 7–9 mm in diameter, glandular-pubescent on the upper surface, densely puberulous beneath, lobes 3–5 × 2.5–3.5 mm, oblong to orbicular, densely puberulous
    Stamens
    Filaments glandular-pubescent, c. 1.25 mm long.
    Fruits
    Fruit yellow to orange-coloured, shiny, 6–11 mm in diameter, globose or obpyriform, completely enveloped by the accrescent calyx the apical part of which forms a curved beak; pyrenes 3.5–5.5 × 2.5–3.5 mm. Fruit yellow to orange-coloured, shiny, 6–11 mm in diameter, globose or obpyriform, completely enveloped by the accrescent calyx the apical part of which forms a curved beak; pyrenes 3.5–5.5 × 2.5–3.5 mm
    Seeds
    Seeds 2.5–3 × 1–1.5 mm, cuneiform, white, smooth. Seeds 2.5–3 × 1–1.5 mm, cuneiform, white, smooth.
    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Spreading, drooping, trailing or subscandent often thorny shrub or small tree, 1.8–6 m. tall; bark pale; young snoots adpressed pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or verticillate; blades ovate, obovate, elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, 1.5–8 cm. long, 1–4.5 cm. wide, obtuse to acute at the apex, cuneate at the base, the margins entire, serrate or crenate above the middle, glabrous or finely adpressed pubescent; petioles 0.5–1.2 cm. long, usually adpressed pubescent.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes ± lax, 3–16 cm. long, often in very lax panicles; pedicels 1–5 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx 3–4(–6) mm. long, pubescent inside and out.
    Corolla
    Corolla lilac, lavender-blue or white; tube 7 mm. long; limb spreading, 0.7–1.3 cm. wide.
    Pistil
    Style shorter than corolla-tube; stigma capitate.
    Fruits
    Fruit orange-yellow and shining, globose, 0.5–1.1 cm. diameter, the persistent calyx shrunk over it and produced as a curved beak; pyrenes 3.5–5.5 mm. long, 2.5–3.5 mm. wide.
    Seeds
    Seeds cuneiform, white, shining, 2.5–3 mm. long, 1–1.5 mm. wide.
    Figures
    Fig. 7.
    Habitat
    Scrub and riverine thicket, often on termite-mounds, Enclea, Olea forest and clearings; 1080–1950 m.
    Distribution
    K4 K5 K6 T1 T3 T6 U1 U3 U4 Z Argentine to Mexico and Floridanow widely cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world and even in Europe, Cyprus, etc.
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Conservation
    Least concern.
    Ecology
    Alt. 100 - 3140 m.
    Distribution
    Native from Colombia.
    Habit
    Shrub.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 3140 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe.
    Habit
    Arbusto
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [UPB]
    Materials
    Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Unspecified Materials Chemicals
    Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Arizona, Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Borneo, Borneo, Cambodia, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Norfolk Is., Society Is., St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Uganda, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Duranta erecta L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Ash [960], Ethiopia 77511.000
    Rico, L. [1538], Bolivia Duranta repens K000295315
    Rico, L. [1205], Bolivia Duranta repens K000295121
    McWhirter, J. [123], Madagascar Duranta repens 32235.000
    Sellow [4630], Brazil Duranta repens K000487112

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 637 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • de Lange, P.J., Gardner, R.O., Sykes, W.R., Crowcroft, G.M., Cameron, E.K., Stalker, F., Christian, M.L. & Braggins, J.E. (2005). Vascular flora of Norfolk Island: some additions and taxonomic notes New Zealand Journal of Botany 43: 563-596.
    • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 16 : 5, fig. 1 (1995).
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 48, fig. 7 (1992).
    • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 278 (1983).
    • Adams, Fl. Pl. Jamaica: 632 (1972).
    • Bothalia 10 , 3: 496 (1971).
    • van der Schijff, Check List Vasc. Pl. Kruger Nat. Park: 81 (1969).
    • Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink Jr., Fl. Java 2 : 599 (1965).
    • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 368 (1962).
    • Résumé Verbenaceae: 455 (Taxon. Index, 1959).
    • Fl. Madag., Verbenaceae: 40, t. 5 fig. 1–4 (1956)
    • Rev. Argent. Agrom. 23 : 6, fig. 1 (1956).
    • F.W. Andrews, Fl. Pl. Anglo-Egypt. Sudan 3 : 196 (1956).
    • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 639 (1949).
    • Lilloa 4 : 313 (1939)
    • Hutchinson & Dalziel, F.W.T.A. 2 : 269 (1931).
    • Mildbraed, Wiss. Ergebn. Zweit. Deutsch. Zentr.-Afrika-Exped., Bot. 2 : 68 t (1922).
    • op. cit. (Fl. Doming.) 8 : 599 (1921).
    • Urban, Symb. Antill. 4 : 536 (1911)
    • J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 37 : 463 (1906).
    • F.C. 5 , 1: 210 (1901).
    • F.T.A. 5 : 287 (1900).
    • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1 , 4: 831 (1900).
    • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C : 338 (1895).
    • Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl., part 2: 507 (1891).
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 11 : 615 (1847).
    • Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 4 : 79 (1845).
    • Plumier, Plantarum Americanum, ed. J. Burman 4 : 70 (1756), Groningen Univ. Library.

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • de Lange, P.J., Gardner, R.O., Sykes, W.R., Crowcroft, G.M., Cameron, E.K., Stalker, F., Christian, M.L. & Braggins, J.E. (2005). Vascular flora of Norfolk Island: some additions and taxonomic notes New Zealand Journal of Botany 43: 563-596.
    • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Bromley in Kew Bulletin 39: 803 (1984).
    • Caro in Revista Argentina Agron. 23: 6, fig. 1 (1956).
    • Urban, Symb. Antill. 8: 599 (1921).
    • Urban, Symb. Antill. 4: 536 (1911)
    • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1: 831 (1900).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 637 (1753).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0