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This species is accepted, and its native range is S. U.S.A. to Tropical America.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Morphology General Habit
Spreading, drooping, trailing or subscandent often thorny shrub or small tree up to 6 m high;  branchlets slender, 4-angular or terete, young shoots appressed pubescent; spines paired, 0.8–2.7 cm long, axillary or inserted just above the axils, spreading, straight or slightly curved, very sharp Spreading, drooping, trailing or subscandent often thorny shrub or small tree up to 6 m high; branchlets slender, 4-angular or terete, young shoots appressed pubescent; spines paired, 0.8–2.7 cm long, axillary or inserted just above the axils, spreading, straight or slightly curved, very sharp.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or verticillate, petiolate; lamina 1.5–7(8) × 1–3(4) cm, ovate, obovate, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, acute or obtuse at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, entire or serrate on the margins above the middle, glabrous or finely appressed pubescent on both surfaces more densely so on the nerves; petiole 0.5–1.5 cm long, slender, appressed-pubescent Leaves opposite or verticillate, petiolate; lamina 1.5–7(8) × 1–3(4) cm, ovate, obovate, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, acute or obtuse at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, entire or serrate on the margins above the middle, glabrous or finely appressed pubescent on both surfaces more densely so on the nerves; petiole 0.5–1.5 cm long, slender, appressed-pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes many-flowered, 3–16 cm long, single or in lax panicles, the terminal raceme longer than the lateral ones; pedicels 1–5 mm long, alternate, opposite or subopposite; bracts and bracteoles 1.5–2 mm and 1 mm long respectively, linear, those of the lower flowers usually larger and leaf-like Racemes many-flowered, 3–16 cm long, single or in lax panicles, the terminal raceme longer than the lateral ones; pedicels 1–5 mm long, alternate, opposite or subopposite; bracts and bracteoles 1.5–2 mm and 1 mm long respectively, linear, those of the lower flowers usually larger and leaf-like.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments glandular-pubescent, c. 1.25 mm long
Ecology
In moist places, in riverine vegetation, gully forest and on granite outcrops, occasionally in miombo woodlands, often on termite mounds; 50–2000 m.
Note
Introduced as a garden ornamental now widespread as a scattered naturalized shrub or tree.  Known as the ‘golden dew drop’.
Distribution
Mozambique Native of tropical America but cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics. Malawi Zimbabwe Zambia District code: BOT N, BOT SE, BOT N, BOT C, BOT S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ MS, MOZ M. Botswana
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tube 3–4 mm long, ± sparsely appressed-puberulous; teeth up to 1 mm long, triangular with midrib produced as a mucro. Calyx tube 3–4 mm long, ± sparsely appressed-puberulous; teeth up to 1 mm long, triangular with midrib produced as a mucro
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla lilac to violet-blue or sometimes white; tube longer than the calyx, curved, puberulous outside more densely so in the upper part, glandular-pubescent within; limb spreading, 7–9 mm in diameter, glandular-pubescent on the upper surface, densely puberulous beneath, lobes 3–5 × 2.5–3.5 mm, oblong to orbicular, densely puberulous. Corolla lilac to violet-blue or sometimes white; tube longer than the calyx, curved, puberulous outside more densely so in the upper part, glandular-pubescent within; limb spreading, 7–9 mm in diameter, glandular-pubescent on the upper surface, densely puberulous beneath, lobes 3–5 × 2.5–3.5 mm, oblong to orbicular, densely puberulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments glandular-pubescent, c. 1.25 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit yellow to orange-coloured, shiny, 6–11 mm in diameter, globose or obpyriform, completely enveloped by the accrescent calyx the apical part of which forms a curved beak; pyrenes 3.5–5.5 × 2.5–3.5 mm. Fruit yellow to orange-coloured, shiny, 6–11 mm in diameter, globose or obpyriform, completely enveloped by the accrescent calyx the apical part of which forms a curved beak; pyrenes 3.5–5.5 × 2.5–3.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2.5–3 × 1–1.5 mm, cuneiform, white, smooth. Seeds 2.5–3 × 1–1.5 mm, cuneiform, white, smooth.

[FTEA]

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
Spreading, drooping, trailing or subscandent often thorny shrub or small tree, 1.8–6 m. tall; bark pale; young snoots adpressed pubescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or verticillate; blades ovate, obovate, elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, 1.5–8 cm. long, 1–4.5 cm. wide, obtuse to acute at the apex, cuneate at the base, the margins entire, serrate or crenate above the middle, glabrous or finely adpressed pubescent; petioles 0.5–1.2 cm. long, usually adpressed pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes ± lax, 3–16 cm. long, often in very lax panicles; pedicels 1–5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3–4(–6) mm. long, pubescent inside and out.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla lilac, lavender-blue or white; tube 7 mm. long; limb spreading, 0.7–1.3 cm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Style shorter than corolla-tube; stigma capitate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit orange-yellow and shining, globose, 0.5–1.1 cm. diameter, the persistent calyx shrunk over it and produced as a curved beak; pyrenes 3.5–5.5 mm. long, 2.5–3.5 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds cuneiform, white, shining, 2.5–3 mm. long, 1–1.5 mm. wide.
Figures
Fig. 7.
Habitat
Scrub and riverine thicket, often on termite-mounds, Enclea, Olea forest and clearings; 1080–1950 m.
Distribution
K4 K5 K6 T1 T3 T6 U1 U3 U4 Z Argentine to Mexico and Floridanow widely cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world and even in Europe, Cyprus, etc.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Conservation
Least concern.
Ecology
Alt. 100 - 3140 m.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 3140 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

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[UPB]
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Arizona, Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Borneo, Borneo, Cambodia, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Norfolk Is., Society Is., St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Uganda, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Duranta erecta L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Moura, O.T. [403], Brazil K000013870
Ash [960], Ethiopia 77511.000
Dec 1, 2008 Apaza [80], Bolivia Duranta repens K000509769
Dec 1, 2008 Villalobos [994], Bolivia Duranta repens K000509771
McWhirter, J. [123], Madagascar Duranta repens 32235.000
Rico, L. [1205], Bolivia Duranta repens K000295121
Sellow [4630], Brazil Duranta repens K000487112
Rico, L. [1538], Bolivia Duranta repens K000295315

First published in Sp. Pl.: 637 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • de Lange, P.J., Gardner, R.O., Sykes, W.R., Crowcroft, G.M., Cameron, E.K., Stalker, F., Christian, M.L. & Braggins, J.E. (2005). Vascular flora of Norfolk Island: some additions and taxonomic notes New Zealand Journal of Botany 43: 563-596.

Literature

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 11 : 615 (1847).
  • Adams, Fl. Pl. Jamaica: 632 (1972).
  • Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink Jr., Fl. Java 2 : 599 (1965).
  • Bothalia 10 , 3: 496 (1971).
  • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 639 (1949).
  • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C : 338 (1895).
  • F.C. 5 , 1: 210 (1901).
  • F.T.A. 5 : 287 (1900).
  • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 48, fig. 7 (1992).
  • F.W. Andrews, Fl. Pl. Anglo-Egypt. Sudan 3 : 196 (1956).
  • Fl. Madag., Verbenaceae: 40, t. 5 fig. 1–4 (1956)
  • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1 , 4: 831 (1900).
  • Hutchinson & Dalziel, F.W.T.A. 2 : 269 (1931).
  • J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 16 : 5, fig. 1 (1995).
  • J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 37 : 463 (1906).
  • Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl., part 2: 507 (1891).
  • Lilloa 4 : 313 (1939)
  • Mildbraed, Wiss. Ergebn. Zweit. Deutsch. Zentr.-Afrika-Exped., Bot. 2 : 68 t (1922).
  • Plumier, Plantarum Americanum, ed. J. Burman 4 : 70 (1756), Groningen Univ. Library.
  • Rev. Argent. Agrom. 23 : 6, fig. 1 (1956).
  • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 278 (1983).
  • Résumé Verbenaceae: 455 (Taxon. Index, 1959).
  • Urban, Symb. Antill. 4 : 536 (1911)
  • Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 4 : 79 (1845).
  • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 368 (1962).
  • op. cit. (Fl. Doming.) 8 : 599 (1921).
  • van der Schijff, Check List Vasc. Pl. Kruger Nat. Park: 81 (1969).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • de Lange, P.J., Gardner, R.O., Sykes, W.R., Crowcroft, G.M., Cameron, E.K., Stalker, F., Christian, M.L. & Braggins, J.E. (2005). Vascular flora of Norfolk Island: some additions and taxonomic notes New Zealand Journal of Botany 43: 563-596.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bromley in Kew Bulletin 39: 803 (1984).
  • Caro in Revista Argentina Agron. 23: 6, fig. 1 (1956).
  • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1: 831 (1900).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 637 (1753).
  • Urban, Symb. Antill. 4: 536 (1911)
  • Urban, Symb. Antill. 8: 599 (1921).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0