1. Family: Rutaceae Juss.
    1. Zanthoxylum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Pacific, Southern America, Northern America, Australasia and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Rutaceae, J.O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

    Habit
    Deciduous or evergreen aculeate shrubs or trees; trunk usually with bosses
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, alternate; leaflets (1–)2–12(or more)-jugate, opposite or alternate1 sessile to petiolulate, usually ± asymmetric, crenulate, serrate or entire, dotted with pellucid glands
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of terminal and/or axillary panicles or of racemes borne at the base of new branches below the leaves
    Flowers
    Flowers unisexual by abortion, usually on separate plants, 4–5-merous Male flowers: stamens opposite the sepals; gynophore short; ovary vestigial Female flowers: staminodes rudimentary; gynophore short; ovary of 1–2 carpels (1 sometimes aborts), each 1-locular and with 2 subapical collateral pendulous ovules (1 aborts); style terete, oblique, incurved; stigma discoid or subcapitate
    Calyx
    Sepals usually persistent and very small
    Corolla
    Petals valvate or slightly imbricate
    Male
    Male flowers: stamens opposite the sepals; gynophore short; ovary vestigial
    Female
    Female flowers: staminodes rudimentary; gynophore short; ovary of 1–2 carpels (1 sometimes aborts), each 1-locular and with 2 subapical collateral pendulous ovules (1 aborts); style terete, oblique, incurved; stigma discoid or subcapitate
    Fruits
    Fruit a subglobose dehiscent 1-seeded follicle or pair of follicles, glandular-foveolate
    Seeds
    Seed subglobose, black, shiny.
    [FZ]

    Rutaceae, F. A. Mendoça. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

    Habit
    Deciduous or evergreen aculeate trees or shrubs; trunk usually with bosses.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, imparipinnate; leaflets (1) 2–12 (or more)-jugate, opposite or alternate, sessile or petiolulate, usually ± asymmetric; lamina crenulate, serrate or entire, dotted with pellucid glands (sometimes only in the marginal sinuses).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of terminal or axillary and terminal panicles, or of racemes borne at the base of new branches below the leaves.
    Flowers
    Flowers unisexual by abortion, dioecious (in our area), 4–5-merous. Male flowers: stamens opposite the sepals; gynophore short; ovary vestigial. Female flowers: staminodes vestigial, opposite the sepals (in our area); gynophore short; ovary of 1 carpel, or rarely of 2 carpels of which 1 aborts (in our area), 1-locular, with 2 subapical collateral pendulous ovules (1 aborted); style terete, shorter than the ovary, oblique, incurved; stigma discoid or subcapitate.
    Calyx
    Sepals very small, usually persistent.
    Corolla
    Petals valvate or slightly imbricate, much longer than the sepals.
    Fruits
    Fruit a globose or subglobose dehiscent 1 -seeded follicle, stipitate or subsessile, glandular-foveolate, usually with the seed hanging from the detached placenta during dehiscence.
    Seeds
    Seed 4 globose, black, shiny.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Oklahoma, Ontario, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Xinjiang, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Uzbekistan

    Zanthoxylum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5218], Cameroon K000338418
    Pennington, T.D. [12482], Peru 54606.000
    DuPuy, B. [MB 359], Madagascar 63482.000
    Aug 1, 1975 Letouzey, R. [14233], Cameroon Fagara K000094305
    Gomes e Sousa, A. [4662], Mozambique Fagara 22131.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 270 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Reynel, C. (2017). Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) Flora neotropica, monograph 117: 1-263. New York.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 130 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 270 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0