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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

[LKGF]

Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

Morphology General Habit
Perennial or annual, sometimes succulent, subshrubs or herbs or geoxylic herbs, usually aromatic
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, rarely bipinnate, sometimes succulent, opposite, rarely ternate, very rarely scattered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence thyrsoid, condensed or lax, with cymes sessile or pedunculate, bracteate, very rarely braceolate, 1- to many-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts caducous or persistent, sometimes coloured at apex; bracteoles rarely present
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel very rarely jointed with distal part falling with calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx funnel-shaped or shortly tubular, often ventrally gibbous, straight or slightly or strongly curved, strongly 2-lipped or actinomorphic, 5-lobed (1/4 or isomorphic), lobes equal or unequal; posterior lip lanceolate to obovate, sometimes decurrent, la
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla strongly two-lipped, 5-lobed (4/1), white, blue, purple or yellow, posterior lip long or short, ascending, reflexed or truncate, 4-lobed, median lobes exceeding lateral, anterior lip horizontal or sometimes finally deflexed, cucullate or concave,
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, very rarely 2, fused or free at base, held within anterior lip or exserted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma-lobes subulate or linear
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers usually ± orbicular, but rarely with outer edges of locules fused in lower half to form a pouch which opens apically
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc 4-lobed with anterior lobe larger, sometimes exceeding ovaries
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style bifid or rarely emarginate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets, ovoid, glabrous, slightly flattened or not, mucilaginous or not.
Note
2n = 24-48 (-84).  Three-hundred species. Treatment here is based on a synthetic approach, using similarity of several characters.  This broad generic concept is in accordance with Keng (1978) and Hedge (1998).  As a result, many traditionally recognized
Distribution
Old World tropics.  Introduced to Macaronesia, New Zealand, Central Pacific, Southeastern U.S.A., Central America, the Caribbean and South America

[FTEA]

Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Morphology General Habit
Perennial or annual, sometimes succulent, subshrubs or herbs or geoxylic herbs, usually aromatic
Morphology Stem
Stems usually branched
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, rarely bipinnate, opposite, rarely ternate, very rarely scattered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence thyrsoid, condensed or lax, with cymes sessile or pedunculate, bracteate, very rarely braceolate, 1–many-flowered; bracts caducous or persistent; pedicel very rarely jointed with distal part falling with calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx funnel-shaped or shortly tubular, with the pedicel attaching symmetrically at the centre of the calyx base, or asymmetrically behind the posterior lip, straight or slightly or strongly curved, strongly 2-lipped or actinomorphic, 5lobed (1/4 (1 posterior, 4 anterior), rarely 3/2 or actinomorphic); lobes equal or unequal; posterior lip lanceolate to obovate, sometimes decurrent; lateral lobes rounded to lanceolate; anterior lobes lanceolate to subulate at apex, sometimes fused for part of their length, rarely with a deep split between them; throat open, truncate or oblique, glabrous or bearded, very rarely circumscissile at base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, blue, purple or yellow, strongly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (4/1); posterior lip long or short, ascending, reflexed or truncate, 4-lobed, median lobes usually exceeding lateral; anterior lip horizontal or sometimes finally deflexed, cucullate or concave; corolla-tube narrow, straight, variously curved or sigmoid, parallel-sided, more rarely gibbous or spurred at base, dilating distally and parallel-sided or narrowing towards throat, very rarely annulate within
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, fused or free and adjacent at base, fused to corolla at corolla throat at the base of the anterior lip, held within anterior lip or exserted; anthers usually ± orbicular, dorsifixed, synthecous, sometimes ellipsoid, but rarely with outer edges of locules fused in lower half to form a pouch which opens apically
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk 4-lobed with anterior lobe larger, sometimes exceeding ovaries
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous, very rarely pubescent at apex, deeply 4-lobed; style bifid with lobes spreading, subulate or linear or rarely entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets ovoid, slightly flattened or not, glabrous, rarely pubescent, mucilaginous or not 2 n = 24–48(–84)
Note
ON CONSERVATION: Information from herbarium specimens has been used to calculate preliminary conservation assessments for Plectranthus species endemic to the F.T.E.A. and Flora Zambesiaca areas, as outlined in Willis, Moat & Paton (2003). In these cases the following abbreviations have been used. EOO: extent of occurrence; AOO: area of occupancy (see also www.iucnredlist.org/info/categories_criteria). Subpopulations were calculated using adjacent cells (Schatz et al., 2000) and by Rapoport distances using a barrier distance twice the average line length from the minimum spanning tree (MST) and buffer distance is the average line length of MST (Rapoport, 1982). Within the ‘Coleus’ clade there are several groups of species: 38–39 have an entire style and have been recognized as Holostylon; 83–91 have fused anterior calyx lobes and have been recognized as Solenostemon; 93–100 have a dense ring of hairs in the calyx throat (subgen. Calceolanthus Codd). However within both the major clades, and, to a small extent, between the main clades themselves, there are species which do not fall into readily recognizable, mutually exclusive groups. Within both clades there are some groups of species which can be recognized. In the ‘Plectranthus’ clade species 2 and 3 have an oblique calyx throat with the lateral lobes of the calyx closer to the median lobes of the anterior (lower) lip than to the posterior (upper) lip and the corolla tube is saccate at the base; other species having a truncate calyx throat and usually non-saccate, usually sigmoid corolla tube. Species 26–32 have a rootstock and produce stems annually. The ‘Plectranthus’ clade of Paton et al. (2004) is represented by species nos 1–33. These species have the anterior and posterior lips of the corolla ± equal in length, a symmetrical calyx base with the pedicel attaching at the midline of the calyx, free stamens and ovoid nutlets. The ‘Coleus’ clade is represented by species 35–104. In this group the posterior corolla lip is usually shorter than the anterior, the calyx is usually asymmetric at the base with the pedicel behind the posterior lip of the calyx; the stamens are free or fused and the nutlets are often flattened. ON GROUPINGS OF PLECTRANTHUS: A formal classification is not adopted here. A phylogenetic overview of the genus is presented in Paton et al. (2004) and Lukhoba et al. (2006) and provides a working informal grouping of species. These treatments are not congruent with previous morphological classifications, such as that by Codd in Bothalia 11: 371–442 (1975). Further work is needed before proposing a formal classification. The key to Plectranthus by Codd in Fl. Southern Africa provides a good basis for identifying the cultivated Plectranthus of southern tropical Africa. P. scutellarioides (L.) R.Br. ( Coleus blumei Benth.) from tropical Asia is similar to P. dupuisii below and is widely cultivated for its brightly coloured and variegated, sometimes incised leaves.

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[LKGF]
Use
Used medicinally and a few species as tuber crops and for hedging. P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is widely used as a pot herb.

Native to:

Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

El Salvador, Honduras, Juan Fernández Is., Leeward Is., Madeira, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Puerto Rico, St.Helena, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Plectranthus L'Hér. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 4, 1991 Collenette, I.S. [8203], Saudi Arabia 76773.000
11399.000
Drummond, R.B. [2846], Tanzania 17456.000
Drummond, R.B. [2846], Tanzania 17555.000
Bally, P.R.O. [B.13949], Kenya 36083.000
Tweedie, E.M. [4262], Kenya 34136.000
Polhill, R. [1188], Tanzania 23357.000
Hepper, F.N. [4538], Sri Lanka 60187.000
Jacobs, M. [7036], Philippines K000897825
H. [7039], Kenya 60217.000
Mathew, B. [6108], Kenya 27461.038
Mathew, B. [6164], Kenya 6049.217
Mathew, B. [6108], Kenya 6049.232
Collenette, I.S. [6364], Saudi Arabia 52261.000
Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8553], Cameroon K000070636
Wood, J.R.I. [2423], Yemen 42485.000
Greenwood, P.J. [11894], Tanzania 31968.000
Brummitt [10888], Malawi 42047.000
H.and J. [7050], Kenya 56005.000
Castro [22148], Philippines K000897826
Breteler, F.J. [219], Cameroon K000070633
Loher, A. [4197], Philippines K000897824
Loher, A. [4229], Philippines K000897828
Loher, A. [4191], Philippines K000897830
Loher, A. [7282], Philippines K000897831
Vidal, S. [3485], Philippines K000897823
Burley, J.S. [152], Philippines K000897837
Sulit, M.D. [7560], Philippines K000897834
Reynoso, E. [27185], Philippines K000897827
Reynoso, E. [27296], Philippines K000897835
Edaño, G.E. [24742], Philippines K000897833
Ramos, M. [22360], Philippines K000897829
Ramos, M. [37647], Philippines K000897832
Ramos, M. [39218], Philippines K000897836
Frodin, D. [3079], Papua New Guinea K000897906

First published in Stirp. Nov.: 84, verso (1788)

Accepted by

  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Morton in J. Linn. Soc. 58: 242 (1962). Nom. cons.
  • Stirp Nov. 1: 84 (1784)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • J. Ethnopharm. 103: 1–24 (2006)
  • K.B. 59: 379–414 (2004)
  • Molec. Phylog. Evol. 31: 277–299 (2004)
  • Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 6: 264 (2004)
  • Rapoport, E.H. (1982). Areography: Geographical Strategies of Species. Pergamon Press, New York.
  • Bothalia 11: 371–442 (1975)
  • J.L.S. 58: 231–283 (1962)
  • Stirp. Nov. Fasc. 4, t. 41, 42 (1788)

Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets

  • Harley RM, Atkins S, Budantsev AL, Cantino PD, Conn BJ, Grayer R, Harley MM, de Kok RPJ, Krestovskaja T, Morales R, Paton AJ, Ryding O, and Upson T. 2004. Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Sp
  • Hedge in Hedge, Clement, Paton & Phillipson, Flore de Madagascar et des Comores 175: 137-235 (1998), reg. rev.
  • Calchas P.V.Heath, Calyx 5: 160 (1997).
  • Forster, Austrobaileya 4: 159-186 (1994), reg. rev.
  • Keng in van Steenis (ed.), Fl. Malesiana 8, 3: 382-393 (1978), reg. rev.
  • Codd, Bothalia 11: 371-442 (1975), reg. rev.
  • Neohyptis J.K.Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 258 (1962)., (1963).
  • Morton, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 58: 231-283 (1962), reg. rev.
  • Ascocarydion G.Taylor, J. Bot. 69(Suppl. 2): 162 (1931).
  • Perrierastrum Guillaumin, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., II, 2: 692 (1930).
  • Briquetastrum Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 102 (1929).
  • Holostylon Robyns & Lebrun, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles, Sér. B 49: 103 (1929).
  • Isodictyophorus Briq., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 61(8): 285 (1914 publ. 1917).
  • Leocus A.Chev., J. Bot. (Morot) 22: 125 (1909).
  • Symphostemon Hiern (1900).
  • Burnatastrum Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3A): 358 (1897).
  • Capitanya Schweinf. ex Gürke (1895). (Capitanya Schweinf. ex Penzig Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 21: 105 (1893) nom nud.).
  • Englerastrum Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 178 (1894).
  • Neomuellera Briq., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 180 (1894).
  • Majana Rumph. ex Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 523 (1891).
  • Saccostoma Wall. ex Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt.: 449 (1845).
  • Mitsa Chapel. ex Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 52 (1832).
  • Solenostemon Thonn. in C.F.Schumacher, Beskr. Guin. Pl.: 271 (1827).
  • Coleus , Fl. Cochinch.: 372 (1790).
  • Plectranthus L' Hér., Stirp. Nov. Fasc. 4: t. 41, 42 (1788)
  • Germanea Lam., Encycl. 2: 690 (1788).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
Nina Davies, Gemma Bramley and Don Kirkup, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0