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This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Pacific, Southern America, Northern America, Australasia and Asia-Temperate..


Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Annual or perennial herbs or suffrutices, erect or prostrate, glabrous or pubescent or pilose to densely tomentose or velutinous.
Leaves usually undivided, serrate or crenate-serrate, occasionally 3-lobed, cuneate to cordate at the base, usually petiolate.
Flowers small to medium-sized, usually cream or orange, long-pedicelled to subsessile or solitary, clustered or fasciculate in the leaf-axils or arranged in racemes (sometimes subcapitate or subumbellate) or spikes.
Epicalyx absent.
Calyx shallow-campanulate to saucer-shaped; lobes ovate or triangular, generally acute to acuminate.
Petals not clawed.
Staminal tube dilated at the base, divided at the apex into several to many free filaments; free parts of filaments terete.
Ovary of 5 to many carpels, each with a single pendulous ovule; style terete or subclavate; stigmas capitate or truncate.
Fruit of 5 to many mericarps ultimately separating from the torus, dehiscent at the apex (or rarely at the base) or indehiscent, smooth, transversely ribbed, glabrous or hairy, usually acute, beaked or awned.
Seeds triangular; cotyledons folded; endosperm scanty or absent.


M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008]

Annual or perennial herbs or dwarf shrubs, usually with stellate hairs
Leaves entire or rarely 3(–5)-lobed; stipules filiform to lanceolate
Flowers solitary or paired in leaf axils, or in clusters, heads, racemes, spikes or panicles
Epicalyx absent
Calyx 5-lobed, with triangular usually 1-veined lobes
Ovary of 5–13(–15) 1-ovulate free carpels around a central torus; style-branches as many as carpels
Fruit a flattened to globose schizocarp; mericarps indehiscent or irregularly dehiscent, sculptured in various ways.
Some 230 species throughout the tropics and subtropics; many species are weedy and some yield useful fibers.
A record from Somalia of Sida rhombifolia L. in Cuf. Enum.: 544 (1959) has not been substantiated and the species is omitted here.


Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs, erect or prostrate.
Indumentum simple or mostly stellate
Leaves simple (rarely not so outside Africa), lobed or not, mostly distinctly toothed, cuneate to cordate at base, usually petiolate; stipules filiform to lanceolate
Flowers solitary or ± fasciculate in the leaf-axils, pedicellate or subsessile, often running into terminal clusters; pedicel often jointed
Epicalyx absent
Calyx cupular, often angular, 5-lobed
Corolla mostly white to yellow or orange, mostly small
Ovary of 5–15 carpels, each with a single pendulous ovule.
Style branches as many as carpels
Mericarps ± trigonous, ultimately separating from columella, dehiscent at apex or less often at base or indehiscent, smooth or variously sculptured, glabrous or pubescent, usually distinctly beaked, the beak often bearing 1–2 short to long awns
Seeds triangular-reniform with little or no endosperm.
A key to the sections of the genus is given by Fryxell in Sida 11: 63–64 (1985).

Native to:

Alabama, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Howland-Baker Is., Illinois, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Ascension, Azores, Belgium, Canary Is., Central American Pac, Chile Central, Cook Is., Czechoslovakia, District of Columbia, Easter Is., Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Korea, Madeira, Marianas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Norfolk Is., Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Portugal, Primorye, Sinai, Solomon Is., St.Helena, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tubuai Is., West Virginia

Sida L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Stannard, B. [6314], Brazil K001217140
Rico, L. [1180b], Bolivia K000295022
Fevereiro, V.P.B. [M/II7], Brazil K001217158
Santos, T.S. [2494], Brazil K001217185
Santos, T.S. [2494], Brazil K001217186
Coradin, L. [5759], Brazil K001217152
Coradin, L. [6350], Brazil K001217153
Silva, E.I. [87], Brazil K001217177
Oliveira, M. [25], Brazil K001217132
Oliveira, M. [120], Brazil K001217174
Silva, L.F. [14], Brazil K001217129
Gomes, A.P.S. [64], Brazil K001217134
Gomes, A.P.S. [3], Brazil K001217131
Gomes, A.P.S. [146], Brazil K001217175
Campelo, M.J. [51], Brazil K001217169
Irwin, H.S. [17581], Brazil K001217143
Irwin, H.S. [20527], Brazil K001217156
Marcon, A.B. [151], Brazil K001217176
Sales, M.F. [564], Brazil K001217135
Heringer, E.P. [16998], Brazil K001217178
Heringer, E.P. [18346], Brazil K001217180
Heringer, E.P. [14179], Brazil K001217183
Heringer, E.P. [14228], Brazil K001217184
Agra, M.F. [698], Brazil K001217159
Andrade, K. [263], Brazil K001217172
Eiten, G. [1711], Brazil K001217160
Hora, M.J. [107], Brazil K001217171
Pickersgill, B. [72-268], Brazil K001217136
Pickersgill, B. [Ru/72/463], Brazil K001217137
Pickersgill, B. [72-384], Brazil K001217138
Pickersgill, B. [s.n.], Brazil K001217139
Pickersgill, B. [72-397], Brazil K001217179
Maas, P.J.M. [325], Brazil K001217157
Mamede, M.C.H. [CFCR/6381], Brazil K001217181
Mamede, M.C.H. [6381], Brazil K001217182
Robert, A. [s.n.], Brazil K001217144
Inácio, E. [8], Brazil K001217133
Tschá, M. [191], Brazil K001217173
Rambo, B. [45288], Brazil K001217154
Rambo, B. [43285], Brazil K001217155
Souza, S.A.M. [271], Brazil K001217141
Eden, M.J. [EM/40], Brazil K001217163
Eden, M.J. [51], Brazil K001217164
Eden, M.J. [23], Brazil K001217165
Eden, M.J. [EM/10], Brazil K001217166
Eden, M.J. [EM/101], Brazil K001217167
Eden, M.J. [65], Brazil K001217168
Eden, M.J. [79], Brazil K001217161
Eden, M.J. [EM/6], Brazil K001217162
Zickel, C. [1], Brazil K001217130
Gardner [2485], Brazil K001217150
Gardner [2485], Brazil K001217151
Weiss [s.n.], Brazil K001217146
Mynssen, C.M. [1011], Brazil K001217170
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132300
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132301
s.coll. [1320], Brazil K001217142
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001217148
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001217149
Burchell [5171], Brazil K001217145
Burchell [4440], Brazil K001217147

First published in Sp. Pl.: 683 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Brandão, J.L. & al. (2017). Synopsis of Sida (Malvaceae, Malvoideae, Malveae) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil Phytotaxa 307: 205-227.
  • Fryxell, P.A. (2009). A new South American subsection of Sida sect. Nelavaga (Malvaceae) with two new species Lundiana 12: 15-27.
  • Cervantes Aceves, N. (1992). La Familia Malvaceae en el Estado de Jalisco, Mexico: 1-393. Editorial Universidad de Guadalajara.


Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 1: 178.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 306 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 683 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Sp. Pl.: 683 (1753) & Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 306 (1754)

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