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  1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Abutilon Mill.
      1. Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa to NW. India, Arizona to Arkansas and Mexico.

    [FZ]

    Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Shrub 0·5–1·25 (2) m. tall, much branched, canescent to glaucous-grey with a dense very short velvety indumentum; stems terete, slender, at length glabrescent, woody and ultimately covered with a light brown or greyish bark with short darker linear markings.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 2–6 (10) × 1·5–4 (6) cm., apex obtuse to acute or somewhat acuminate, margin usually subentire to slightly crenate or serrate, less often more conspicuously serrate, upper surface grey-green with indistinct venation, lower surface paler and canescent with distinct somewhat prominent venation; petiole somewhat shorter or slightly longer than the corresponding lamina.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary on the main branches and/or on short leafy axillary shoots; pedicels 0·5–4 (8) cm. long, slender, terete, articulated near the apex.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5–6 mm. long, broadly campanulate to cupular, divided to about the middle; lobes triangular or triangular-ovate, mucronate, minutely ciliate, with indistinct median vein.
    Corolla
    Petals 7–10 mm. long.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube stellate-hairy.
    Fruits
    Fruit 8 × 10–12 mm., broadly cylindric with rounded base, widely and shallowly umbilicate. Mericarps usually c. 10, broadly keeled in apical half (hence fruit in upper half characteristically furrowed between the mericarps), obliquely truncate-convex at the apex with the dorsal angle subacute to shortly mucronate but not awned, when not yet ripe densely and shortly greyish-green, ultimately grey-brown, stellate-tomentose dorsally and on the apical dorsal area of the flat sides, not turning black.
    Seeds
    Seeds usually 3, c. 1·5 × 1·5 mm., usually greyish-brown, minutely verruculose-punctate.
    [FWTA]

    Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A hoary, much-branched, woody perennial, 3–6 ft. high
    Leaves
    Comparatively small leaves
    Flowers
    Flowers yellow
    Fruits
    Carpels 2–3-seeded.
    [FTEA]

    Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Type
    Type: Senegal, R. Senegal, Saffal island, near Saint Louis, Perrottet 80 (P, holo.; BM!, iso.). (A ‘Roger dedit’ sheet from Herb Gay at K is probably an isotype.)
    Habit
    Perennial or sometimes annual erect branched herb, usually ± woody, 0.5–1.2 m tall with all parts velvety with very fine greyish stellate tomentum but long hairs usually absent
    Leaves
    Leaves with lamina ovate, 0.8–6(–12) × 0.8–4(–9.5) cm, rounded to acute at apex, cordate at base, shallowly crenate-dentate; petiole 0.4–4.5(–9) cm long; stipules filiform, 8 mm long
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary; pedicel 1–4(–8) cm long, the part above the joint 2–4 mm long; calyx 4–6.5(–10) mm long, lobed for 1/3–2/3 its length into ovate-acuminate lobes 2–5(–7) × 1.8–3.5(–6) mm
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow or orange; petals obovate, 5–12(–17) × 5–11 mm.
    Stamens
    Staminal column hairy above
    Fruits
    Fruit squarish, 7–10 mm long, subtruncate at apex, densely stellate-pubescent; mericarps 9–10, 5–9 × 3–4 mm, with dorsal angle subacute to acute but not awned, 2–3-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1.5–2 mm long, papillose.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Angola, Arkansas, Botswana, Burkina, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, India, Iran, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Namibia, New Mexico, Niger, Northern Provinces, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Texas, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Aldabra

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 16, 2008 Crawford, F. [26], Namibia K000450339
    Mathew, B. [6721], Kenya 6049.233
    Hooker [s.n.], Senegal K000240399
    Headley, P.M. [207], Ethiopia 6049.066
    Ethiopia K000240397
    Jan 1, 1980 Palmer, E. [242], Mexico Abutilon texense K001134032
    Drummond [43], Texas Abutilon texense K000659596
    Drummond [43], Texas Abutilon texense K000659594
    Drummond [43], Texas Abutilon texense K000659595
    Nuttall [s.n.] Abutilon texense K000659592
    Nuttall [s.n.] Abutilon texense K000659593

    Bibliography

    First published in Fl. Seneg. Tent.: 70 (1831)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Riedl, I. (1976). Flora Iranica 120: 1-86. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Chev. Bot. 59.
    • F.T.A. 1: 187
    • Fl. Seneg. 1: 70 (1831)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Riedl, I. (1976). Flora Iranica 120: 1-86. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Thulin, Fl. Somalia 2: 76, fig. 46 A–C (1999).
    • Wood, Handb. Yemen Fl.: 107 (1997)
    • Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 2 (2): 244, fig. 82.22.1–4 (1995)
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 101 (1994) (sphalm (Cav.) Guill. & Perr.)
    • Fl. W. Pak. 130: 55 (1979)
    • F.Z. 1: 489, t. 93, fig. 4 (1961)
    • Keay, F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 1(2): 337 (1958)
    • F.P.S. 2: 15, fig. 6 (1952)
    • T.T.C.L.: 298 (1949)
    • Exell & Mendonça, C.F.A. 1 (1): 153 (1937) & 2: 373 (1951)
    • F.T.A. 1: 187 (1868)
    • Fl. Seneg. Tent. 1: 70 (1831)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/