1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Stachys L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Perennial or annual herbs or rarely small subshrubs, with simple and/or branched hairs, often strongly aromatic
    Leaves
    Leaves usually toothed, petiolate or rarely sessile
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence thyrsoid or racemoid
    Flowers
    Flowers pedicellate, rarely sessile
    Bracts
    Bracts present or absent
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles present or absent
    Calyx
    Calyx actinomorphic to weakly 2-lipped, 5-lobed, lobes equal or unequal (3/2), often spinose, tube with throat often barbate
    Corolla
    Corolla strongly 2-lipped, 4-lobed (1/3), posterior lip long, hooded or sometimes almost flat, externally pubescent, anterior lip with median lobe usually much larger than lateral lobes, corolla-tube annulate or rarely exannulate
    Stamens
    Stamens not exserted from corolla, thecae ± distinct, usually divaricate, rarely subparallel to parallel
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes subequal or slightly unequal
    Fruits
    Nutlets obovoid to oblong, rarely flattened trigonous, rounded or sometimes winged at apex.
    Note
    2n =10, 16, 18, 24, 30, 32, 34, 48, 64, 66, 68, 80, 102.  About 300 species A cladistic analysis by Lindquist and Albert (2002) suggests that Betonica and other Stachys may have different origins.
    Ecology
    Various habitats
    Distribution
    Cosmopolitan, except for Australia (introduced to New Zealand, Middle Atlantic Ocean, Southwestern and North-Central Pacific. Doubtfully present in Indo-China
    [FTEA]

    Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Stachys, Y.B. Harvey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Habit
    Perennial scandent or erect herbs, seldom aromatic, with an indumentum of simple, biramous, dendroid or stellate hairs
    Stem
    Stems quadrangular or roundedquadrangular, sometimes armed with prickles
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, distichous or decussate, petiolate or sessile
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences lax, with verticils variously 2–12(–16)flowered; bracts similar to cauline leaves, but smaller; bracteoles linear or subulate
    Calyx
    Calyx regularly 5-toothed, campanulate to funnel-shaped, 10-veined, not or enlarging only slightly in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla white, pink, purplish or blue, 2-lipped; tube straight with annulus at midpoint; posterior lip flattened or slightly hooded; anterior lip with two small rounded lateral lobes and a large median lobe
    Stamens
    Stamens held under posterior lip adnating to just above mid-point of the tube; filaments sometimes pubescent; anthers 2-thecous, divaricate
    Disc
    Disk equally 4-lobed
    Ovary
    Ovary deeply 4-lobed; style gynobasic, bifid, branches equal
    Fruits
    Nutlets ovoid, minutely tuberculate and rounded at apex, with a small basal scar.
    [LKGF]
    Use
    Several species are widely cultivated as ornamentals.  Stachys affinis Bunge is cultivated for its edible, subterranean tubers

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Senegal

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Honduras, Hungary, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Manchuria, Manitoba, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Arizona, Ascension, Bermuda, Easter Is., Galápagos, Hawaii, Juan Fernández Is., Leeward Is., Mali, Maryland, Mississippi, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., Nova Scotia, Puerto Rico, St.Helena, Tasmania, Tristan da Cunha, Windward Is.

    Stachys L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Ash [1024], Ethiopia 35506.000
    Sebsebe, D. [2312], Ethiopia 54597.000
    Balansa, B. [2927], Vietnam K000853945
    Balansa, B. [2928], Vietnam K000853946
    Smiles, H.H. [s.n.], Thailand K000853944

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 580 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Krestovskaya, T. (2011). The critical review of species of the genus Stachys L. section Eriostemum Hoffmanns. et Link (Labiatae) Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 42: 198-221.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 5: 465.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 7: 223 (2004)
    • K.B. 51: 433–454 (1996)
    • K.B. 48: 327–341 (1993)
    • Norw. Journ. Bot. 18: 121–137 (1971)
    • N.B.G.B. 8: 625–646 (1923)
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 253 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. 580 (1753)
    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    • Harley RM, Atkins S, Budantsev AL, Cantino PD, Conn BJ, Grayer R, Harley MM, de Kok RPJ, Krestovskaja T, Morales R, Paton AJ, Ryding O, and Upson T. 2004. Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Sp
    • Bhattacharjee, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 38: 65-96 (1980).
    • Menitskia (Krestovsk.) Krestovsk., Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 91: 1893 (2006).
    • Stachyus St.-Lag., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 109 (1880).
    • Aspasia E.Mey. ex Pfeiff., Nomencl. Bot. 1: 295 (1873).
    • Ortostachys Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 136 (1869).
    • Trixella Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 135 (1869).
    • Olisia Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. 9: 166 (1840).
    • Eriostemum Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 588 (1840).
    • Eriostomum Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Portug. 1: 105 (1809).
    • Tetrahitum Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Portug. 1: 103 (1809).
    • Galeopsis Moench, Methodus: 397 (1794), nom. illeg.
    • Bonamya Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 316 (1790), opus utique oppr.
    • Trixago Haller, Hist. Stirp. Helv. 1: 101 (1768).
    • Zietenia Gled., Syst. Pl. Stamin. Situ: 185 (1764).
    • Tetrahit Gérard (1761).
    • Galeopsis Hill, Brit. Herb.: 359 (1756), nom. illeg.
    • Betonica L., Sp. Pl.: 573 (1753).
    • Stachys L., Sp. Pl. 2: 580 (1753)
    • Lamiostachys Krestovsk., Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 91: 1258 (2006).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    Nina Davies, Gemma Bramley and Don Kirkup, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0