Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FWTA]

Dioscoreaceae, J. Miège. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Sturdy climber 15-25 ft. high with spiny stems often pruinose, brown, red or purplish.

[FWTA]

Dioscoreaceae, J. Miège. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Spiny climber 15-25 ft. high
Vegetative Multiplication Tubers
Tubers protected by spiny roots.

[FTEA]

Dioscoreaceae, E. Milne-Redhead. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

Morphology General Habit
Tuber replaced annually, up to 5 cm. in diameter and more than 6 dm. long, descending vertically, protected by horizontal thorny roots above.
Morphology Stem
Twining stems very prickly below, less so above, the lower 3 m. leafless but with thick fleshy stipules, up to 12 m. long, glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or occasionally alternate, glabrous; petiole up to 5(–7) cm. long; blade ovate, ovate-lanceolate or rarely deltoid, widely cordate or subtruncate at the base, acutely acuminate, up to 10(–15) cm. long and 5(–7.5) cm. broad.
Vegetative Multiplication Tubers
Aerial tubers absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male spicate, ascending, up to 5(–7) cm. long, with the flowers not densely arranged, arising up to 5(–7) in the axils of leaves or at leafless nodes on terminal or lateral branches up to 10(–17) cm. long; perianth longer than wide with the lower half somewhat scarious, greyish or straw-coloured and the upper half petaloid, ± 2 mm. long and 1.5 mm. in diameter apically, narrower below. Female pendulous, 1 per leaf-axil, up to 15(–17) cm. long; perianth subglobose, somewhat flattened, scarcely 2 mm. across.
sex Male
Male spicate, ascending, up to 5(–7) cm. long, with the flowers not densely arranged, arising up to 5(–7) in the axils of leaves or at leafless nodes on terminal or lateral branches up to 10(–17) cm. long; perianth longer than wide with the lower half somewhat scarious, greyish or straw-coloured and the upper half petaloid, ± 2 mm. long and 1.5 mm. in diameter apically, narrower below.
sex Female
Female pendulous, 1 per leaf-axil, up to 15(–17) cm. long; perianth subglobose, somewhat flattened, scarcely 2 mm. across.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule as fig. 1/4, p. 4, up to 3.8 cm. in diameter, glaucous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds (fig. 1/4a) winged all round.
Habitat
Rain-forest and riverine forest, termite-hills and woodland river-banks; 800–1800 m.
Distribution
widely spread to Sierra Leone in the west and Malawi, Zambia and Angola in the south K5 T4 T7 T8 U2 U3 U4

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Dioscorea praehensilis Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jul 23, 2013 Luke [15464], Mali K000499535
Sep 1, 2011 Ndjango, J-B. [530], Congo K000683930
Jan 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [10999], Cameroon K000199852
Jan 1, 2004 Tadjouteu, F. [425], Cameroon K000746167
Jan 1, 2004 Onana, J.-M. [1811], Cameroon K000746168
Oct 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [4315], Cameroon K000109599
Oct 1, 2001 Cable, S. [3710], Cameroon K000109588
Jan 1, 2000 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1486], Cameroon K000436701
Peal, J. [32], Uganda 17065.000
Peal, J. [31], Uganda 17066.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [9753], Tanzania 17196.000
Peal, J. [30], Uganda 17200.000
Peal, J. [2], Uganda 17210.000
Peal, J. [1], Uganda 17214.000
Tweedie, M. [3213], Kenya 28541.000
Wilkin, P. [769], Malawi 59136.000
Vogel [21], Sierra Leone K000098382 holotype
Vogel [21], Sierra Leone K000098383 holotype
Buttner, R.Dr [104] K000098384 lectotype
Buttner, R.Dr [104] K000098385 lectotype
Welwitsch [4036], Angola K000098745 Unknown type material
s.coll [94], Ghana K000759313
s.coll [72], Ghana K000759320
Pereira, J.A. [2685], Guinea-Bissau K000809838
Glover, J.C. [12], Ghana K000809846
Harris, D.J. [1319], Central African Republic K000809867
Letouzey, R. [6752bis], Cameroon K000809868
Loveridge, M.V. [524], Congo, DRC K000809870
Baldwin, J.T.Jr. [14110], Congo, DRC K000809871
Gutzwiller, R. [3605], Congo, DRC K000809876
Torre, A.R. [17851], Mozambique K000809941
Faulkner, H.G. [K126], Mozambique K000809942
Wilkin, P. [793], Malawi K000809950
Wilkin, P. [781], Malawi K000809952
Thomas, N.W. [12], Ghana K001145935
Talbot, P.A. [727], Nigeria K001145966
Boughey, A.S. [53], Equatorial Guinea K001146434
Mullenders, W. [293], Congo, DRC K001146442
s.coll [2451] K001146443
Christiaensen, R. [1282], Congo, DRC K001146444
Herb Lewalle, J. [2888], Burundi K001146456
Germain, R.G.A. [1034], Ethiopia K001146649
Pawek, J. [64616], Malawi K001148248
s.coll [1113], Malawi K001148257
Astle, W.L. [4437], Zambia K001148275
Trapnell, C.G. [1430], Zambia K001148280
Trapnell, C.G. [1391], Zambia K001148282
Burkill, I.H. [19], United Kingdom K001150834
Letouzey, R. [6752], Cameroon K000809869
Wilkin, P. [782], Malawi K001148255
Leonard, A. [2552], Congo, DRC K000809873
Robson, N.K.B. [1033], Zambia K000809956
Rensburg, H.J. van [2868], Zambia K001148262
Kyei, W.S. [1], Ghana K000809848
unknown [s.n.] K000696823
Buchanan, J. [531], Malawi K001148245
s.coll [59], Ghana K000759314
Morze, G. [252], Zambia K000809962
Onochie, C.F.A. [33297], Nigeria K001145964
Bounogou, E. [126], Cameroon K000809994
Gilges, W. [392], Zambia K001148261
Thomas, N.W. [1904], Sierra Leone K000759309
Lely, H.V. [310], Nigeria K000759332
Hall, J.B. [GC 46103] K000809849
Hall, J.B. [GC 46103] K000809850
Fanshawe, D.B. [F8254], Zambia K001148277
Webb, J.A. [605], Cameroon K001146431
Morton, J.K. [3857], Sierra Leone K000809844
Baldwin, J.T.Jr. [14117], Congo, DRC K000809984
Webb, J.A. [655], Cameroon K001146451
Jeke, R.C. [148], Malawi K001148244
Pilz, G.E. [2125], Nigeria K001145960
E.N. [510/68], United Kingdom K001148287
Angus, A. [3833], Zambia K001148276
Wilkin, P. [783], Malawi K000809948
s.coll [2], Nigeria K001145954
Chevalier, A.J.B. [5409], Central African Republic K001146449
Chapman, J.D. [8387], Malawi K001148250
Bingham, M.G. [10324], Zambia K001148265
Baquar, S.R. [151], Nigeria K001150837
Scott-Elliot, G.F. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001150840
Zenker [329], Cameroon K001146446
Schnell, R.A.A. [6039], Côte d'Ivoire K001145950
Wilkin, P. [781], Malawi K000809951
Chapman, J.D. [347], Malawi K000809964
Dalziel, J.M. [671], Nigeria K001145957
Fanshawe, D.B. [9220], Zambia K001148273
Harris, D.J. [1178], Central African Republic K001146455
Bingham, M.G. [10372], Zambia K000809953
Boughey, A.S. [s.n.], Ghana K001145933
Wilkin, P. [769], Malawi K000809946
s.coll [728], Nigeria K001145965
Wilkin, P. [793], Malawi K000809949
Fanshawe, D.B. [8926], Zambia K000809955
Deighton, F.C. [3935], Sierra Leone K001145932
Herb Lewalle, J. [410], Burundi K001146459
Boughey, A.S. [14646], Côte d'Ivoire K001145952
Wilkin, P. [783], Malawi K000809947
Herb Germain, R.G.A. [5898] K001146452
Astle, W.L. [5362], Zambia K001148259
Herb Lewalle, J. [2961], Burundi K001146457
Herb Lewalle, J. [2960], Burundi K001146458
Macauly [1113], Zambia K001148253
Rensburg, H.J. van [2157 KBS], Zambia K001148263
Friis, I. [12660], Ethiopia K001146648
Chevalier, A.J.B. [22218], Côte d'Ivoire K001145949
Thomas, N.W. [2605], Sierra Leone K000809839
Trapnell, C.G. [1248], Zambia K001148271
Newton, F. [s.n.] K001146432
Troupin, G. [1274], Congo, DRC K001146437
Kennedy, J.D. [A32/31], Nigeria K001145977
Trapnell, C.G. [1430], Zambia K001148270
Deighton, F.C. [2547], Sierra Leone K001145941
Gittins, R. [10642 [?]], Nigeria K000759316
Ern, H. [777], Togo K000759327
Lebrun [8962], Congo, DRC K001146441
Trapnell, C.G. [1243], Zambia K001148272
Trapnell, C.G. [1196], Zambia K001148281
Gittins, R. [10646 [?]], Nigeria K000759321
Hall, J.B. [GC 43318] K000759325
Deighton, F.C. [2872], Sierra Leone K001145944
Robyns [1854], Congo, DRC K001146435
Bingham, M.G. [10919], Zambia K000809954
Phipps, J.B. [3154], Malawi K001148258
Linder, D.H. [899], Liberia K001145948
Deighton, F.C. [5843], Sierra Leone K000809843
Small, D. [806], Sierra Leone K001145939
Haswell, D.R. [129], Sierra Leone K000759311
Lawton, J.R.S. [106422 [?]], Nigeria K001145959
Lely, H.V. [492], Nigeria K001145974
Bos, J.J. [2077], Liberia K000759312
Deighton, F.C. [2872], Sierra Leone K001145942
Wilkin, P. [769], Malawi K000809945
Pawek, J. [7980], Malawi K001148246
Chevalier, A.J.B. [22429], Côte d'Ivoire K001145951
Bingham, M.G. [10919], Zambia K001148266
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001150839
Chapman, J.D. [9491], Malawi K000809943
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001150835
Astle, W.L. [4724], Zambia K001148274
Fanshawe, D.B. [F8572], Zambia K000809963
Robson, N.K.B. [1033A] K000809959
Herb Jaeger, P. [7854], Sierra Leone K001145946
Breteler, F.J. [1555], Cameroon K001146450
Small, D. [806], Sierra Leone K000809842
Hall, J.B. [GC 46117] K000809851
Patel, I.H. [2014], Malawi K001148249
Hall [46167], Ghana K000809852
Hakki, M. [806], Togo K000809853
King, A.E. [355], Zambia K001148278
Gossweiler, J. [4888], Angola K001148285
s.coll [19], United Kingdom K001150836
Trapnell, C.G. [1430], Zambia K001148268
Brown, N.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001150841
Chapman, J.D. [9026], Malawi K001148252
Gossweiler, J. [4888], Angola K001148284
Small, D. [242], Sierra Leone K001145931
Chevalier, A.J.B. [6482], Central African Republic K001146447
Fanshawe, D.B. [F8895], Zambia K001148260
Lawton, J.R.S. [12636 [?]], Nigeria K001145958
Gittins, R. [10642 [?]], Nigeria K000759317
Thomas, N.W. [2243], Sierra Leone K000809840
Barter, C. [s.n.], Nigeria K001145975
Linder, D.H. [182], Liberia K001145947
Pawek, J. [10865], Malawi K001148247
Bingham, M.G. [10919], Zambia K001148267
Keay, R.W.J. [22920], Nigeria K001145976
Fanshawe, D.B. [F8338], Zambia K001148279
Chevalier, A.J.B. [[388]], Central African Republic K001146448
s.coll [s.n.], Belgium K001146438
Talbot, P.A. [721], Nigeria K001145967
Deighton, F.C. [2872], Sierra Leone K001145943
Cook, C.D.K. [489], Nigeria K001145962
Glover, J.C. [15], Ghana K001145937
s.coll [2], United Kingdom K001145955
Leonard, A. [2552], Congo, DRC K000809874
Wilde, W.J.J.O. de [635], Côte d'Ivoire K000809845
Lebrun, J.P.A. [8962], Congo, DRC K001146440
Robson, N.K.B. [1033A], Zambia K000809958
s.coll [1556], Nigeria K001145973
Gillardin [343], Congo, DRC K001146445
Gillardin [343], Congo, DRC K000809872
Bingham, M.G. [10445], Zambia K000809960
Herb Jaeger, P. [9291], Sierra Leone K001145945
Gittins, R. [10645 [?]], Nigeria K000759319
Robson, N.K.B. [1033] K000809957
Boughey, A.S. [s.n.], Ghana K001145934
s.coll [2], Nigeria K001145953
s.coll [4035], Angola K001148286
Herb C.N.A. [871], Cameroon K001146429
Yamada, T. [404], Congo, DRC K001146454
Herb Lewalle, J. [2546], Burundi K001146460
Herb Jaeger, P. [6836], Sierra Leone K001145940
Ern, H. [1589], Togo K000759328
Cook, C.D.K. [314], Nigeria K001145963
Thomas, N.W. [4705], Sierra Leone K000809841
Bingham, M.G. [10324], Zambia K001148264
Germain, R.G.A. [5898], Congo, DRC K001146453
Wilkin, P. [783], Malawi K001148256
Kyei, W.S. [1] K000809847
King, A.E. [355], Zambia K000809961
Witte, G.F. de [5506], Congo, DRC K000809875
Quintas, F.J.D. [105], Sao Tome and Principe K001146433
s.coll [s.n.], Belgium K001146439
Glover, J.C. [15], Ghana K001145938
Germain, R.G.A. [5898], Congo, DRC K001146436
Phipps, J.B. [2637], Malawi K001148251
Barbosa, L.A.G. [2762], Mozambique K000823585
Thomas, N.W. [1732], Nigeria K001145961
Hall, G.B. [416], Ghana K001145971
Vogel [86], Nigeria K001145972
Glover, J.C. [12], Ghana K001145936
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001150838
Trapnell, C.G. [1430], Zambia K001148269
Gittins, R. [10646 [?]], Nigeria K001145956
Wilkin, P. [769], Malawi K000809944
Wilkin, P. [782], Malawi K001148254
Mavi, S. [1433], Zimbabwe K001148283
Thomas, N.W. [4118], Sierra Leone Dioscorea liebrechtsiana K000759310
Deighton, F.C. [4127], Sierra Leone Dioscorea liebrechtsiana K001145995
Deighton, F.C. [1352], Sierra Leone Dioscorea liebrechtsiana K001145999
s.coll [329], Nigeria Dioscorea liebrechtsiana K001146003
Thomas, N.W. [1006], Sierra Leone Dioscorea liebrechtsiana K001146000
s.coll [3], Nigeria Dioscorea liebrechtsiana K001146004
s.coll [3], Nigeria Dioscorea liebrechtsiana K001146002
Deighton, F.C. [4357], Sierra Leone Dioscorea liebrechtsiana K001145997
Deighton, F.C. [4127], Sierra Leone Dioscorea liebrechtsiana K001145996
s.coll [4], Nigeria Dioscorea liebrechtsiana K001146001
Deighton, F.C. [4357], Sierra Leone Dioscorea liebrechtsiana K001145998
Bidgood, S. [3015], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K000809972
s.coll [2754] Dioscorea odoratissima K000809973
Reekmans, M. [9558], Burundi Dioscorea odoratissima K001146462
Peal, J. [30], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147383
Peal, J. [31], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147384
Jarret, T. [218], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147390
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [9753], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147408
Pirozynski, K.A. [P258], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147421
Newbould, J. [4309], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147422
Milne-Redhead, E. [10685], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147425
Bidgood, S. [8137], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K000062156
Fyffe, R. [60], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147377
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [9753A], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K000809976
Napper, D.M. [1519], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147385
Lea, A. [s.n.], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147423
Rwaburindore, P.K. [2715], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147386
Tweedie, E.M. [3085], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K001147393
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [9753], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K000809974
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [9753], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147415
Eilu, G. [328], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147388
Stolz, A.F. [1935], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147410
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [9753A], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K000809975
s.coll [25] Dioscorea odoratissima K001147379
Milne-Redhead, E. [10685], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147426
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [9753], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147405
Bullock, A.A. [3149], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147417
Tweedie, E.M. [3213], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K001147397
Tweedie, E.M. [3088], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K001147395
Bidgood, S. [8137], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K000062157
Tweedie, E.M. [3625], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K001147398
Bally, P.R.O. [13687], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K001147404
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [9753], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147407
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [9753], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147414
Tweedie, E.M. [2901], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K000809971
Maas Geesteranus, R.A. [6235], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K001147402
Tweedie, E.M. [3213], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K001147396
Peal, J. [15], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147375
Sheil, D. [1616], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147391
Bullock, A.A. [2468], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147412
Tweedie, E.M. [3086], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K000809970
Peal, J. [1], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147378
Tweedie, E.M. [3086A], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K001147394
Tweedie, E.M. [3087], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K001147401
Milne-Redhead, E. [10685], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147427
Borhidi, A. [82114], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147419
Tweedie, E.M. [3087], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K001147400
Eilu, G. [199], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147389
s.coll [250], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147380
Stolz, A. [1964[?]], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147424
Whyte, A. [1898], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K001147403
Reekmans, M. [5747], Burundi Dioscorea odoratissima K001146461
Paulo, S. [533], Kenya Dioscorea odoratissima K001147399
Peal, J. [2], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K000809968
Borhidi, A. [82199], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147418
Eilu, G. [201], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147387
Peal, J. [16], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147376
Mbago, F.M. [1516], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147420
Peal, J. [30], Uganda Dioscorea odoratissima K001147382
Stolz, A.F. [1935], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147411
Stolz, A.F. [1935] Dioscorea odoratissima K001147409
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [9753], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147416
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [9753], Tanzania Dioscorea odoratissima K001147406

First published in W.J.Hooker, Niger Fl.: 536 (1849)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.
  • Govaerts, R., Wilkin, P. & Saunders, R.M.K. (2007). World Checklist of Dioscoreales. Yams and their allies: 1-65. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
  • Velayos, M. & al. (eds.) (2018). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 10: 1-491. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chevalier in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 59: 223 (1912)
  • F.T.A. 7: 418, partly
  • Knuth in Engl., Pflanzenr. Dioscoreac. 4, 43: 299 (1924)
  • Miège, Contrib. Dioscor. 112 (1952).
  • in Fl.Nigrit .536 (1849)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Zonneveld, B.J.M. (2009). The systematic value of nuclear genome size for "all" species of Tulipa L. (Liliaceae) Plant Systematics and Evolution 281: 217-245.

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0