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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Asia.
Dioscorea alata

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe.
Morphology General Habit
Trepadora

[FWTA]

Dioscoreaceae, J. Miège. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous climber with winged stems 10-25 ft. high
Note
Rarely flowering in our area and usually reproducing vegetatively
Vegetative Multiplication Bulbils
Bulbils developed in some forms
Vegetative Multiplication Tubers
Tubers annual, their shape, size and colour very variable according to the cultivars.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
cabeza de negro, chilma, ñame, ñame congo, ñame morado, ñampí, tabena

[FTEA]

Dioscoreaceae, E. Milne-Redhead. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

Morphology General Habit
Tuber replaced annually, normally cylindric, up to 6 cm. in diameter, descending vertically, but in some cultivars very diversely shaped, branched or expanded above, sometimes with lobes curved or spreading horizontally.
Morphology Stem
Twining stems 4-winged or -angled, up to 10 m. long, glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or the lower alternate, glabrous; petiole up to 9(–10) cm. long; blade ovate with widely cordate almost hastate base, apically narrowed to an acute acumen, up to 12(–13) cm. long and 8(–10) cm. broad.
Vegetative Multiplication Tubers
Aerial tubers subglobose or irregularly and narrowly ovoid, up to 12 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences glabrous.
sex Male
Male ± 2 in the leaf-axils or forming axillary terminal panicles in the axils of bracts, spreading; axis zigzag, with the sessile flowers directed forwards and outwards; perianth subglobose, not opening widely, ±1.5 mm. across.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female 1 per leaf-axil, up to 21(–35) cm. long; perianth triangular-subglobose, ± 5 mm. across. Ovary glabrous. Male ± 2 in the leaf-axils or forming axillary terminal panicles in the axils of bracts, spreading; axis zigzag, with the sessile flowers directed forwards and outwards; perianth subglobose, not opening widely, ±1.5 mm. across.
sex Female
Female 1 per leaf-axil, up to 21(–35) cm. long; perianth triangular-subglobose, ± 5 mm. across. Ovary glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule as in fig. 1/4, p. 4, up to 3.5 cm. in diameter, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds winged all round.
Habitat
Cultivated for its edible tuber, and often persisting in secondary forest and bushland; the cited specimens from Uganda are all cultivated, as are those from Amani, but D. alata is likely to persist in these areas, as it is doing in Zanzibar; 0–1350 m.
Distribution
T1 T3 T8 U3 U4 Z tropical eastern Asia, now spread around the humid tropics of both Old and New World

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Christmas I., East Himalaya, India, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam

Introduced into:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Japan, Kazan-retto, Leeward Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Nansei-shoto, Nicaragua, Niue, Northern Territory, Panamá, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Seychelles, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre

Dioscorea alata L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2012 Rakotoarivelo et al. [454], Madagascar K000524293
Nov 21, 2010 Du [HNK 2240], Vietnam K000524252
Oct 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [2794], Cameroon K000109595
Jan 1, 1992 Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [nr 1790], Guyana K001171729
Peal, J. [34], Uganda 17189.000
Peal, J. [14], Uganda 17190.000
Peal, J. [23], Uganda 17193.000
s.coll [374], British Virgin Is. K000369745
Vogt, G.B. [BU-503], Myanmar K000809737
Put [1142], Thailand K000809739
Wilkin, P. [1090], Thailand K000809760
Florence, J. [2899], French Polynesia K000809767
Forrest, G. [6885], China K001141975
s.coll [s.n.], India K001142728
s.coll [H9 5108g] K001142745
Lace, J.H. [2706], Myanmar K001142749
Kerr, A.F.G. [1528 B], Thailand K001144049
Collins, D.J. [1046], Thailand K001144052
Kostermans, A.J.G.H. [18015], Indonesia K001144447
Elbert, J. [1578], Indonesia K001144454
s.coll [1982], Philippines K001144848
Merrill, E.D. [922] K001144854
s.coll [31920] K001145032
Smith, A.C. [1712], Fiji K001145276
Christiansen, M.S. [71], Solomon Is. K001145288
Smeds, H. [1404], Ethiopia K001146628
Peal, J. [23], Uganda K001147350
Greenway, P.J. [5884], Tanzania K001147352
Luke, W.R.Q. [10064], Mozambique K001148225
s.coll [4030], Angola K001148234
Dawe, M.T. [15], Angola K001148236
Faulkner, H.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001148238
Wohlhauser, S. [SW60131], Madagascar K001148420
Davis [1208], Madagascar K001148421
Stiefel, S.L. [63], Madagascar K001148422
Robertson, S.A. [3151], Seychelles K001148424
Randriamboavonjy, T. [RTI 862], Madagascar K001148443
Rajaonah, M.T. [MT 293], Madagascar K001148447
Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 303], Madagascar K001148450
Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 304], Madagascar K001148454
Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 312], Madagascar K001148456
s.coll [122] K001149249
s.coll [31919], Puerto Rico K001149255
s.coll [s.n.], Dominica K001149264
s.coll [233-17], United Kingdom K001149265
s.coll [s.n.], Dominica K001149266
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149276
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149281
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149282
Buttin, F.C. [13053], Trinidad & Tobago K001149293
Burchell [3623], Brazil K001150086
Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [600], Guyana K001150087
Gooding, H.J. [39/57] K001150762
Wohlhauser, S. [SW60105], Madagascar K001148426
Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 302], Madagascar K001148451
Ochse [s.n.], Indonesia K001144449
Deighton, F.C. [2929], Sierra Leone K001145683
Randriamboavonjy, T. [RTI 864], Madagascar K001148448
Williams, R.O. [10201], Trinidad & Tobago K001149288
Pierre, L. [7002], Vietnam K001144061
Thomas, A.S. [26], Ghana K001145701
Eyma, P.J. [377], Indonesia K001144455
s.coll [118] K001149241
s.coll [112] K001149248
Meijer, W. [7323], Indonesia K001144452
Faulkner, H.G. [2859], Tanzania K001147356
Put [1128], Thailand K001144040
Sintenis, P.E.E. [5412], Puerto Rico K001149260
Sandwith, N.Y. [1688], Trinidad & Tobago K001149294
Merrill, E.D. [810], Philippines K001144852
Colchester [2359], Venezuela K001150541
s.coll [17758], India K001142723
Metzer [K2], Togo K001145687
Ramcharan, E.K. [372], Trinidad & Tobago K001149287
Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 302], Madagascar K001148452
Loher, A. [5743], Philippines K001144853
s.coll [10], United Kingdom K001145702
Put [2085], Thailand K001144050
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149271
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149284
Bampton, S.S. [5], Belize K001149044
Thomas, A.S. [38], Ghana K001145695
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149275
Wilkin, P. [T960], Thailand K000809749
Burkill, I.H. [s.n.] K001145680
Rajaonah, M.T. [MT 300], Madagascar K001148442
Gooding, H.J. [14/57] K001150760
s.coll [s.n.], India K001142726
Sandwith, N.Y. [1688], Trinidad & Tobago K001149292
Ducloux. P. [470], China K001141974
s.coll [5108] K001142744
Peal, J. [14], Uganda K001147351
Gooding, H.J. [35/57] K001150757
Collins, D.J. [1498], Thailand K001144051
s.coll [31920], Puerto Rico K001149256
Charoenphol, C. [4575], Thailand K000809745
Simmonds, N.W. [440] K001149291
Heringer, E.P. [15594], Brazil K001150090
Wilkin, P. [1071], Thailand K000809757
Gooding, H.J. [19/57] K001150759
Thomas, A.S. [37], Ghana K001145694
s.coll [[2748]], Brazil K001150091
Wilkin, P. [T971], Thailand K000809751
Thwaites, G.H.K. [s.n.], Sri Lanka K001142752
Herb. Kerr, A.F.G. [21077], Laos K001144063
Collins, D.J. [s.n.], Thailand K001171632
Burkill, I.H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001143258
Collins, D.J. [1537], Thailand K001144056
Thomas, A.S. [34], Ghana K001145692
Elbert, J. [2582], Indonesia K001144453
Ramos, M. [12546], Philippines K001144855
Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Reunion K001148417
s.coll [F3049], Guyana K001150083
Wilkin, P. [1039], Thailand K000809756
Beusekom, C.F. [4626], Thailand K000809746
Middleton, D.J. [2342], Thailand K000809761
Randriamboavonjy, T. [RTI 863], Madagascar K001148445
s.coll [3430], Philippines K001144850
Trapnell, C.G. [1250], Zambia K001148229
s.coll [13], Gambia K001145679
Jayasuriya, A.H.M. [4185], Sri Lanka K001142755
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149274
Kostermans, A.J.G.H. [102], Indonesia K000809765
Kerr, A.F.G. [19918], Thailand K000809742
Balansa, B. [4723], Vietnam K001144037
Degener, O. [15405], Fiji K001145278
Cadet, T. [6010], Reunion K001148418
Lau, S.K. [28339], China K001141973
Harrison, S.G. [1745], Guyana K001150088
s.coll [30147], India K001142721
Buttin, F.C. [13053], Trinidad & Tobago K000809770
Trapnell, C.G. [1538], Zambia K001148228
Broadway, W.E. [3149], Trinidad & Tobago K001149290
s.coll [34861], Puerto Rico K001149254
Gooding, H.J. [38/57] K001150761
Barter, C. [s.n.], Nigeria K001145686
Dash, J.S. [[391/76/57]], Guyana K001150081
Rock, J.F.C. [1723], Thailand K001144058
Trapnell, C.G. [1245], Zambia K001148226
Collins, D.J. [1497], Thailand K001144039
Put [4374], Thailand K001144053
Smith, A.C. [7499], Fiji K001145271
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149285
Jayasuriya, A.H.M. [3804], Sri Lanka K001142756
Lace, J.H. [4449], Myanmar K001142750
Koorders, S.H. [27355B], Indonesia K001144450
s.coll [82], Guam K001145274
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149272
Wohlhauser, S. [SW60138], Madagascar K001148427
Haines, H.H. [5128], India K001142731
Trapnell, C.G. [1245], Zambia K001148227
Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 303], Madagascar K001148449
s.coll [121] K001149250
Collins, D.J. [43], Thailand K001144057
Thomas, A.S. [29], Ghana K001145699
Herb Griffith [5548], India K001142739
Du, N.V. [HNK 2240], Vietnam K001144041
s.coll [3430], Philippines K001144849
Thomas, A.S. [28], Ghana K001145698
Thomas, A.S. [31], Ghana K001145690
s.coll [16], United Kingdom K001146418
s.coll [114] K001149243
Caddick, L.R. [321], Madagascar K001148425
Sulit, M.D. [22491], Philippines K001144846
s.coll [31920], Puerto Rico K001149253
s.coll [s.n.], Puerto Rico K001149258
Faulkner, H.G. [2573], Tanzania K001147357
s.coll [374], British Virgin Is. K000369747
Faulkner, H.G. [s.n.], Mozambique K001148239
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149277
s.coll [1567], India K001142737
Greenway, P.J. [5885], Tanzania K001147353
s.coll [26523], India K001142724
Larsen, K. [8472], Thailand K001144055
s.coll [s.n.] K001144054
Clemens, J. [26455] K001144446
Faulkner, H.G. [s.n.], Mozambique K001148237
Thwaites, G.H.K. [s.n.], Sri Lanka K001142753
Thomas, A.S. [30], Ghana K001145691
Du, N.V. [HNK 2240], Vietnam K001144042
Du, N.V. [HNK 2240], Vietnam K001144043
Burkill, I.H. [s.n.], Nigeria K001145704
Broadway, W.E. [3146], Trinidad & Tobago K001149289
s.coll [M279], Guyana K001150082
s.coll [126] K001149246
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149270
Dash, J.S. [[391/76/37/]], Guyana K001150080
Ducloux, P. [67], China K001141976
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149283
Peal, J. [34], Uganda K001147348
Du, N.V. [HNK 2240], Vietnam K001144044
Randriamboavonjy, T. [RTI 862], Madagascar K001148441
Bateson, G. [123], Papua New Guinea K001145031
André, É.F. [267], Colombia K001150539
Gooding, H.J. [01/56] K001150758
Cadet, T. [4187], Reunion K001148414
Randriamboavonjy, T. [RTI 862], Madagascar K001148446
s.coll [5108] K001142747
Kostermans, A.J.G.H. [81A], Indonesia K000809764
Haines, H.H. [5127], India K001142735
s.coll [6409], Guyana K001150084
Kerr, A.F.G. [1528A], Thailand K001144048
s.coll [115] K001149252
Balansa, B. [299], Vietnam K001144036
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Trinidad & Tobago K001145281
s.coll [111] K001149245
Murray, H.B. [s.n.], St. Lucia K001149267
Gooding, H.J. [03/56] K001150763
Smith, A.C. [4054], Fiji K001145280
s.coll [R20842], India K001142719
Haines, H.H. [704], India K001142734
Jayasuriya, A.H.M. [3880], Sri Lanka K001142754
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149279
Quintas, F.J.D. [s.n.], Sao Tome and Principe K001146417
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149268
Christophersen, E. [2801], Samoa K001145273
Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], India K001142736
Burkill, I.H. [1538], Zambia K001148233
Degener, O. [5570], USA K001145275
St John, H. [14125], French Polynesia K001145279
Ledermann [13298], Micronesia K001145283
s.coll [392], India K001142730
Haines, H.H. [5128], India K001142732
Wang, F.T. [23621], China K001141977
Barber, C.A. [20364], India K001142722
Grant, M.L. [4616], French Polynesia K001145272
Thomas, A.S. [27], Ghana K001145696
Powell, D.A. [s.n.], Christmas I. K001144448
Balansa, B. [4723], Vietnam K001144060
Fishlock, W.C. [s.n.], British Virgin Is. K000369744
Beusekom, C.F. [3768[a]], Thailand K000809743
Smith, A.C. [4709], Fiji K001145277
s.coll [s.n.], Vietnam K001144038
Irvine, F.R. [s.n.], Ghana K001145697
s.coll [9870-2] K001150085
Encarnación, F. [451 [?]], Peru K001150543
Axelrod, F. [9183], Puerto Rico K000809768
Deighton, F.C. [1355], Sierra Leone K001145681
Wilkin, P. [1073], Thailand K000809758
Crosby, C.S. [254], Tonga K001145284
Deighton, F.C. [1422], Sierra Leone K001145685
Pierre, L. [s.n.] K001144045
Peal, J. [34], Uganda K001147349
s.coll [5106], Nepal K001142746
Hildebrandt, J.M. [2977], Madagascar K001148423
s.coll [113] K001149244
s.coll [s.n.] K001142742
s.coll [s.n.] K001142727
Wohlhauser, S. [SW60138], Madagascar K001148428
s.coll [574], Singapore K001143259
Greenway, P.J. [1196], Tanzania K001147358
Seemann, B.C. [627], Fiji K001145282
Marmo, V. [14], Sierra Leone K001145684
Merrill, E.D. [3376], Philippines K001144847
unknown [s.n.] K000696819
Sintenis, P.E.E. [4509], Puerto Rico K001149261
Christenhusz, M.J.M. [5079], Chile K001150738
s.coll [5108] K001142748
Wohlhauser, S. [SW60131], Madagascar K001148419
Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 306], Madagascar K001148455
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149278
s.coll [s.n.] K001144035
Schomburgk, R.H. [s.n.], Dominican Republic K001149262
Burkill, I.H. [s.n.], Mozambique K001148223
Thomas, A.S. [35], Ghana K001145693
Barthelat, F. [883], Mayotte K001148429
André, É.F. [s.n.] K001150538
s.coll [261] K001148415
Thomas, A.S. [32], Ghana K001145688
s.coll [123] K001149247
Wilkin, P. [887], Thailand K000809748
Deighton, F.C. [2929], Sierra Leone K001145682
s.coll [374], British Virgin Is. K000369746
Smeds, H. [1405], Ethiopia K001146627
Clarke, C.B. [34214] K001142733
Lister [41], Venezuela K001150540
Koorders, S.H. [23894B], Indonesia K001144451
s.coll [31920], Puerto Rico K001149259
Jones, B.L. [170], Malaysia K000809763
Axelrod, F. [9183], Puerto Rico K000809769
Beusekom, C.F. [3682], Thailand K000809744
Schäfer, P.A. [5598], French Polynesia K000809766
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149269
Thomas, A.S. [25], Ghana K001145700
Colchester [2154], Venezuela K001150542
Wilkin, P. [999], Thailand K000809754
A.H.G. [s.n.], India K001142718
Podzorski, A.C. [SMHI684] K001144856
Russell, D. [143], Myanmar K001142743
Randriamboavonjy, T. [RTI 863], Madagascar K001148444
Pierre, L. [7003], Vietnam K001144059
s.coll [120] K001149251
Thomas, A.S. [33], Ghana K001145689
Put [4352], Thailand K000809738
Hansen, B. [12731], Thailand K000809741
Soleman, R. [7534], Tanzania K001147354
Put [2468], Thailand K001144047
s.coll [17], Nigeria K001145703
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149280
Broadway, W.E. [7890], Trinidad & Tobago K001149286
Poilane, E. [828], Vietnam K001144034
Christiansen, M.S. [3205], Solomon Is. K001145287
Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 301], Madagascar K001148453
s.coll [116] K001149242
Rodrigues [s.n.] K001148416
Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149273
Collins, D.J. [43], Thailand K001144046
Christiansen, M.S. [3232], Solomon Is. K001145286
Burkill, I.H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001148224
Larsen, K. [8238], Thailand K000809740
Trapnell, C.G. [1395], Zambia K001148230
s.coll [119] K001149240
Wilkin, P. [T960], Thailand K000809750
s.coll [1699], India K001142720
Pételot, A. [5895], Vietnam K001144032
Powell, T. [281], Samoa K001145285
Welw. [4044], Angola K001148235
Philippi [547], Philippines K001144851
Heringer, E.P. [15594], Brazil K001150089
Wilkin, P. [1089], Thailand K000809759
Poilane, E. [828], Vietnam K001144033
Kostermans, A.J.G.H. [18575], Indonesia K000809762
Hasegawa, T. [33], Tanzania K001147355
s.coll [s.n.], Puerto Rico K001149257
Wilkin, P. [1010], Thailand K000809753
Beusekom, C.F. [3906], Thailand K000809747
Lace, J.H. [5455], Myanmar K001142751
s.coll [s.n.], Dominica K001149263
Jenkins, E.E. [s.n.], India K001142738
Wilkin, P. [994], Thailand K000809755
Buchholz, Cameroon Dioscorea colocasiifolia K000098378

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1033 (1753)

Accepted by

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  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.
  • Govaerts, R., Wilkin, P. & Saunders, R.M.K. (2007). World Checklist of Dioscoreales. Yams and their allies: 1-65. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (2016). Flora of Japan IVb: 1-335. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
  • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • National Parks Board Singapore (2006). Vascular Plant Life Checklist Pulau Ubin www.nparks.gov.sg/nparks_cms/cms/cmsmgr/data/6/PlantChkList.xls.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Pérez-Camacho, J. & Raz, L. (2017). Flora de la República de Cuba, Ser. A, 22(1): 1-63.
  • Samanta, A.K. (2006). The genus Dioscorea L. in Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas - a census Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 30: 555-563.
  • Smith, A.C. (1979). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 1: 1-495. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Tanaka, N., Koyama, T. & Murata, J. (2005). The flowering plants of Mt. Popa, central Myanmar - Results of Myanmar-Japanese joint expeditions, 2000-2004 Makinoa 5: 1-102.
  • Velayos, M. & al. (eds.) (2018). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 10: 1-491. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Wilkin, P. & Thapyai, C. (2009). Flora of Thailand 10(1): 1-140. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

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Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Burkill in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux. 15: 380 (1939)
  • F.T.A. 7: 417
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Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Bhattacharya, R.P., Pal, D.C. & Pati, B.R. (2014). A sytematic census of monocot climbers of Bihar anf Jharkhand states Indian Journal of Forestry 37: 317-324.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Florence, J. & Hallé, N. (1986). Suite du catalogue des plantes a fleurs et Fougères des iles Australes Rapa: 151-158. Direction des centres d'expérimentations nucléaires. Service mixte de contrôle biologique.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (2016). Flora of Japan IVb: 1-335. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagner, W.L. (2019). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 1: 1-411. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 7: 417 (1898).
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  • Hutch. & Dalz., Flora of West Tropical Africa 2: 382 (1936).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 1033 (1753).
  • Miège in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 152 (1968).
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