1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Datura L.
      1. Datura innoxia Mill.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Arizona to Texas and Mexico.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 50 - 800 m.; Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba, arbusto
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated Chelsea Physic Garden from seeds collected in Veracruz, Miller s.n. (BM!, neo., designated by Barclay in Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harv. Univ. 18: 255 (1959), based on the original listing of the specimen in Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., 51: 99, no. 1843 (1760)
    Habit
    Annual or semiperennial herbs 0.3–1.5 m tall and 2 m wide, erect or spreading, often malodorous.
    Branches
    Branches smooth, violet, greyish-green or -brown, sometimes much-branched or becoming woody, velutinous to naked eye and usually viscid, villous/pilose usually predominantly glandular-headed, denser on young stems
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate to rhomboidal, (4–)8–15 × (3.2–)6–11 cm, bases usually obliquely cuneate, margins sinuate, with up to 3 shallow obtuse lobes, apices acute or acute/obtuse, young leaves densely villous/pilose becoming moderately pilose, especially dense on lower surfaces, midribs and veins; petioles (3–)6–10.5 cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, erect; pedicels (3–)6–8(–10) mm and erect in flower, elongating to 10–35 mm in fruit when pendulous, densely villous
    Calyx
    Calyx cylindrical becoming slightly bulbous centrally, moderately pilose externally, hairs glandular and eglandular, 7.8–11 × 1.1–2.2 cm, lobes narrowly triangular, 0.9–2.2 × 0.5–0.8 cm, apices acute, with dense hairs on the margins
    Corolla
    Corolla white, sometimes cream or pale yellow with prominent venation, tubular below becoming funnel- or trumpetshaped above, sometimes double or triple, 14.5–19 cm long, glabrescent externally; tube 7–10 mm broad at base, usually with 5 terminal acuminate to caudate teeth ± 6 mm long
    Stamens
    Stamens with filaments free for 3.6–6 cm; anthers oblong, yellow, (8–)10–11 mm long
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid, dark brown, 6–7 mm long, softly spinose; style 10–14.8 cm long; stigma ± 3 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Fruit pendulous, broadly ovoid or globose brownish capsules, 2.5–4.5 × 2.5–5.5(–6) cm (including the spines), dehiscencing irregularly or by 2 valves; valves covered with sharply pointed equal and often greenish spines, 4–12 × ± 0.7 mm basally, densely villous/pilose throughout with spreading glandular and eglandular hairs; subtended by the persistent cupular remains of the calyx 1.4–2 cm deep and 2.8–4.5(–6) mm diameter, with dense short glandular and eglandular hairs internally; fruiting pedicels elongated, stout, pilose/villous
    Seeds
    Seeds pale brown to brown, reniform, 4–5 × 3.5–4.5 mm with lateral ridge, foveolate, with creamish elaisome
    Figures
    Fig 8/6–10, p 41
    Ecology
    Usually along rivers, occasionally on disturbed soil in ruderal sites; 300–700 m
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    Datura innoxia is sometimes known as the Downy Thorn Apple, especially in Europe. It is the rarer of the three Datura species found in East Africa and is another important source of tropane alkaloids, and known for both its toxic and medicinal properties. Heine (F.T.W.A., 2nd. Ed: 326 (1963)) considered the spelling of inoxia as used by Miller l.c. and subsequent authors to be an orthographic error. Miller apparently based this epithet on the pre-Linnean polynomial of Boerhaave (Ind. alt. hort. Acad. Lugd.-Bat.,1: 262 (1720)) in which the correct spelling of innoxia was used (Heine l.c.). Heine’s decision has therefore been adopted here. The typification of D. innoxia is dealt with by Barclay in Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 18: 254 (1959). The species D. metaloides Dunal (DC., Prodr. 13(1): 544 (1852)), [which is cited as D. meteloides (DC. MSS) Novae Hispaniae region. D. metel Moc. & See., pl. Mex. ined. ic. et mss. t. 919 collect transl. Candoll.] has been variously treated as a synonym of D. innoxia (e.g. Barclay, 1959) or as a distinct species (e.g. Safford (1921) and Satina & Avery (1959)). In line with Haegi’s (in Austr. Journ. Bot., 24: 422 (1976)) opinion that more work is required on the typification of this taxon, it has been omitted from list of synonyms.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: K7 T3 Range: Native to tropical America, cultivated as an ornamental and now a widespread weed throughout the tropics
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type: a specimen of Miller (?BM) of a plant cultivated in the Chelsea Physic Garden, London (England), raised from seeds sent probably by Houstoun from Vera Cruz (Mexico).
    Habit
    Erect or ascending to sprawling herb or small shrub, 0.3–1. 6(2) m high, unpleasantly scented, often tinged purplish
    Branches
    Branches striate and ± sulcate, densely and softly pubescent and ± glandular
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary, the upper ones geminate; petiole (0.6)1–7(9.5) cm long; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 4–17 × (1. 6)2.5–9.5 cm, broadly to narrowly ovate, occasionally rhombic, elliptic or ± oblong, base truncate or rounded to cuneate, occasionally ± cordate, and oblique to dimidiate, often ± decurrent into the petiole, apex acute to shortly acuminate, entire or sinuate to coarsely dentate or lobed with few, irregular, broadly triangular, obtuse or sub-acute teeth or lobes, ± pubescent, more densely so beneath especially towards the base, at or near the margins and on the nerves, ± glandular, the lateral nerves looped within the margin
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, inserted in the fork of the branches, at first erect, later drooping.
    Pedicel
    Pedicel (4)8–16 mm long, stout, densely pubescent and ± glandular, in fruit elongated to 20(45) mm
    Calyx
    Calyx sometimes purplish downwards, 7.5–11. 5 × 1. 2–2 cm, ± densely shortly pubescent to tomentose-villous mainly on the nerves and towards the base, more densely so on the lobes near and at the margins, and also towards the apex on the inside, drying with prominent longitudinal nerves; tube often somewhat inflated downwards and narrowed upwards; lobes subequal or unequal, and then often one larger than the other 4, 0.8–2.5 × 0.3–1 cm, ovate- to linear-triangular, ± acute to narrowly long-acuminate; in fruit much accrescent with the venose flange up to 20 mm wide, reflexed
    Corolla
    Corolla white or creamy, occasionally slightly tinged purple, lavender or violet, 13.5–21 cm long, trumpet-shaped to ± tubular, simple, glabrous or with few scattered hairs along the longitudinal nerves; tube narrow, filling the calyx for half or more of its length, with few, short and relatively wide hairs scattered below on the staminal region within; limb (3)5–11(13) cm across, 10(12)-lobed; lobes ± triangular with a wider base and ± narrowing to the apex into an acute to long-acuminate tip up to 11 mm long, often curved, usually 5(6) shorter, acute at the apex, alternating with 5(6) longer, ± long-acuminate at the apex
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, included; filaments adnate to above the middle of the corolla tube and glabrous or with a few, short, relatively wide hairs, free upwards for 3.5–6 cm and usually glabrous; anthers 8–14 mm long, linear or ± oblong in outline
    Ovary
    Ovary up to 6 × 5 mm, ovoid, with fleshy, slender and long appendages on the surface, finely pubescent and ± glandular.
    Style
    Style (8.5)9.5–14(16.5) cm long, straight, glabrous
    Fruits
    Fruit nodding or pendulous, brownish when ripe, (3.5)4–6 × 3.5–5.5 cm including spines, ovoid or ± globose, rather thin-walled, densely covered with numerous, slender, ± acicular spines 8–12 mm long, finely pubescent all over, irregularly breaking up
    Seeds
    Seeds yellowish-brown or brown, (4)4.5–5 × 3.2–3.5(4) × 1–1. 2 mm, ± reniform, strongly thickened and longitudinally ridged at the border, finely reticulate, foveolate; caruncle fleshy
    Note
    Widely confused with D. metel L. Cultivated as a garden ornamental and also for medicinal purposes. A widespread and common weed of cultivation and disturbed ground. Chromosome number: 2n=24
    Distribution
    BOT N, BOT SE, ZIM N, ZIM E, MAL S, MOZ T, MOZ MS Native to tropical (Central or South) America, now widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics. Malawi Mozambique Zimbabwe Botswana.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Arizona, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Texas

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Bulgaria, Burkina, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Galápagos, Gambia, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Iran, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Somalia, South Australia, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sudan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe

    Datura innoxia Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2000 Nascimento, A. [244], Brazil K001073129
    Jan 1, 1997 Spruce, R. [s.n.], Ecuador K000201969
    Parry, C.C. [656], Mexico K000063044
    Gibert [75], Paraguay K001073130
    González O., J. [7010], Mexico K000063045
    González O., J. [7292], Mexico K000063046
    Hawkes, J.G. [1697], Mexico Datura meteloides K000063048
    González O., J. [23], Mexico Datura meteloides K000063047

    First published in Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.º 5 (1768)

    Accepted by

    • Prakash, L. & Balasubramanian, P. (2018). Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India Indian Forester 144: 857-862.
    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Baliousis, E. (2014). Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 275-285.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F., Stevanovic, V. & Kit Tan (2013). New floristic records in the Balkans: 22 Phytologia Balcanica 19: 267-303.
    • Bye, R. & Sosa, V. (2013). Molecular phylogeny of the Jimsonweed genus Datura (Solanaceae) Systematic Botany 38: 818-829.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Schönbeck-Temesy, E. (1972). Flora Iranica 100: 1-82. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
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    • Moriarty, Wild Fl. Malawi: 81, t. 41.2 (1975).
    • Fieldiana, Bot. 24, 10: 40 (1974).
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    • Chron. Bot. 20: 28, fig. 3/g, 9/b, 10 (1959).
    • Taxon 8: 55 (1959).
    • Gard. Dict., ed. 8, Datura no. 5 (1768).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Prakash, L. & Balasubramanian, P. (2018). Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India Indian Forester 144: 857-862.
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Baliousis, E. (2014). Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 275-285.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F., Stevanovic, V. & Kit Tan (2013). New floristic records in the Balkans: 22 Phytologia Balcanica 19: 267-303.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
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    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/