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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.
Cyperus haspan L.

[FWTA]

Cyperaceae, Miss S. S. Hooper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Tufted perennial
Morphology Stem
Weak angular stems
Morphology Leaves Leaf sheaths
Purple sheaths
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Two unequal bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
A spreading inflorescence with near linear spikelets in groups of 1–3
Ecology
Open, moist places.

[FTEA]

Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

Type
Type: Sri Lanka [Ceylon], Hermann 2: 43, No. 37 (BM–000621657, lecto., chosen by McGivney in Biol. Ser. Catholic Univ. Amer. 26: 45 (1938))
Morphology General Habit
Perennial 15–60(–90) cm tall, with short sometimes creeping rhizome.
Morphology Roots
Roots reddish.
Morphology Culms
Culms pale to bright green, crowded, 0.8–2.5 mm wide, trigonous or triangular, smooth, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with leaf sheath reddish-brown or purple, 1–11 cm long. Leaf blade present at least at some shoots, pale to bright green, linear, slightly v-shaped, 5–22(–33) cm long, 1.5–4.5 mm wide, attenuate, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucral bracts leaf-like, spreading or semi-erect or erect, 1–3, lowermost up to 7(–12) cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a simple to compound anthela, primary branches 1–10, 1–7 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets in sessile digitate clusters, at the end of primary and secondary branches, 2–9 per cluster, narrowly ovoid to cylindrical, 7–15(–30)flowered, 3–12 × 1–3 mm, with straight rachis.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes light to dark brown or reddish-brown to almost black, ovate, 1.3–2.8 × 0.9–1.3 mm, keel pale green, slightly excurrent, margin sometimes pale green
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers sulphuryellow, 0.7–1.2 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments white, 1.5–1.9 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet greyish-brown, ellipsoid, obovoid or almost orbicular, 0.5–1 mm long, 0.3–0.8 mm wide, irregularly tuberculate when mature
Figures
Fig. 30, p206
Ecology
Swampy or marshy sites, wet hollows, seasonally wet grassland, areas of impeded drainage, thin seepage soil over rock; occasionally in silty sites; 0–2700(–?3000) m
Conservation
Least concern due to its common habitat and wide distribution.
Note
Polhill & Paulo 1581 states ‘occasionally rooting from the inflorescence if arched over”. Haines and Lye classified C. phaeorhizus as a synonym of C. denudatus, but did not explain why. Although the two are similar, there are significant differences between them: denudatus lacks proper leaf blades and has very narrow spikelets, whereas C. phaeorhizus does have distinctive leaf blades, and the spikelets are wider through glumes spreading during maturing of the nutlet. The material formerly named as C. kipasensis was said, by Haines & Lye, to be close to denudatus and haspan, but with stolons and a light brown inflorescence. But haspan can have stolons as well, at least just like the only East African cited specimen ( Kahurananga et al. 2758!) - for instance Polhill & Paulo 1581, Wingfield 891, Milne-Redhead & Taylor 11073; and there is no difference inflorescence colour, either. I (HB) am putting this particular specimen in C. haspan. Plants without the rhizome and a more short-lived look are referred to C. foliaceus, which might only be a form of C. haspan. See Kartesz & Gandhi in Phytologia 72: 19 (1992) for a discussion on the spelling of haspan vs. halpan. They conclude it should be haspan, as does Wilson in Telopea 5: 598 (1994). Schumann, in his protologue, says C. phaeorhizus “is related to C. haspan L. but easily distinguishable by the few-flowered black spikelets and the red-brown roots.” The “black” spikelets of the type are dark brown, and spikelet colour in haspan sensu stricto can be pale brown, red-brown or dark brown. The red-brown roots occur in specimens with any of these colours of spikelet. The “few-flowered” is specified in the protologue as 8–12 per spikelet; I have seen dark brown spikelets with a range of 8–15 flowers in a single plant, pale brown spikelets with a range of 6–13 flowers, all from the same area in Iringa District; from Tarangire in Mbulu District (not too far from Kilimanjaro) come spikelets with a range of 7–30 flowers. I do not believe phaeorhizus can be kept distinct from haspan, as it is just a colour form with rather few flowers per spikelet, with no qualitative differences, and I hereby unite the two.
Distribution
Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Z Range: Widespread in Africa, Asia and the Americas

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 65 - 2551 m.; Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Orinoquia, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, acuática
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herb without or with a very short rhizome
Morphology Stem
Stems usually crowded, 5–40 cm long and 0.8–2.5 mm thick, triangular, green, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades present at least on some shoots, up to 20 cm long and 1–4 mm wide; leaf-sheaths light to dark reddish brown, glabrous, often with undulate margin and orifice
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a lax anthela 2–15 cm in diam.; major involucral bract leafy, 1.5–7 cm long, usually shorter than the inflorescence; largest inflorescence-branches 1–7 cm long, carrying 1 sessile and a subumbel-like group of digitately arranged spikelets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 3–12 x 1–1.5 mm, linear-lanceolate, light reddish brown
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 1.3–1.6 mm long, reddish brown with a paler midrib which is excurrent in a short straight mucro
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 3-branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet 0.5–0.6 x 0.3–0.4 mm, obovate or subspherical, greyish brown, irregularly papillose.
Distribution
S2, 3 widespread in the Old World tropics.
Ecology
Atitude below 100 m.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Morphology General Habit
Aquatic herb.
Ecology
Alt. 65 - 2551 m.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Fiji, Hawaii, Mauritius, New Caledonia, Réunion

Cyperus haspan L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 1, 2003 Harley, R.M. [16932], Bahia K000188830
Oct 1, 2003 Harley, R.M. [19213], Bahia K000188829
Oct 1, 2003 Harley, R.M. [17986], Bahia K000188828
Oct 1, 2003 ?Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000188823
Oct 1, 2003 Irwin, H.S. [31014], Bahia K000188822
Oct 1, 2003 Anderson, W.R. [36621], Bahia K000188821
Oct 1, 2003 Mori, S.A. [11612], Bahia K000188820
Oct 1, 2003 Hage, J.L. [405], Bahia K000188819
Oct 1, 2003 Mori, S.A. [10948], Bahia K000188817
Oct 1, 2003 Mori, S.A. [10619], Bahia K000188816
Oct 1, 2003 Carvalho, A.M. [3056], Bahia K000188815
Oct 1, 2003 Luetzelburg, P.von [26586], Ceará K000188813
Oct 1, 2003 Noblick, L.R. [2386], Bahia K000188812
Oct 1, 2003 Harley, R.M. [14351], Bahia K000188810
Oct 1, 2003 Harley, R.M. [27307a], Bahia K000188809
Oct 1, 2003 Mori, S.A. [13166], Bahia K000188818
Oct 1, 2003 Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000188824
Oct 1, 2003 Harley, R.M. [19898], Bahia K000188831
Oct 1, 2003 Mendonça, R.C. [2384], Bahia K000188811
Oct 1, 2003 Harley, R.M. [19220], Bahia K000188832
Oct 1, 2003 Harley, R.M. [16011], Bahia K000188827
Oct 1, 2003 Giulietti, A.M. [1918], Bahia K000188701
May 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [8727], Cameroon K000683597
Jul 1, 1987 Harley, R.M. [7292], Bahia K000188799
Dec 3, 1985 Geesink, R. [7054], Thailand K000467474
Oct 1, 1982 Brito, H.S. [52], Bahia K000188806
Oct 1, 1982 Hage, J.L. [730], Bahia K000188804
Oct 1, 1982 Hage, J.L. [751], Bahia K000188805
Mar 1, 1982 Geesink, R. [7538], Thailand K000467473
Mar 1, 1982 Geesink, R. [7671], Thailand K000467472
Jan 1, 1980 Falcao, J.I.A. [933], Pernambuco K000188807
Jan 1, 1979 Mori, S.A. [10168], Bahia K000188802
Jan 1, 1979 Mori, S.A. [9673], Bahia K000188801
Jan 1, 1979 Santos, T.S. [3267], Bahia K000188803
Sep 1, 1978 Harley, R.M. [19649], Bahia K000188826
Jan 1, 1967 Smitinand, T. [5730], Thailand K000467463
Jan 1, 1967 Geesink, R., Santisuk, T. [5911], Thailand K000467470
Jan 1, 1967 Phengklai, C., Tamura, M. [4205], Thailand K000467471
Jan 1, 1967 Smitinand, T. [5414], Thailand K000467466
Jan 1, 1967 Sangkhachand, B. [1330], Thailand K000467467
Jan 1, 1967 Pengklai, C. [917], Thailand K000467468
Jan 1, 1967 Geesink, R., Santisuk, T. [5052], Thailand K000467469
Jul 1, 1893 Cunningham [s.n.], Australia K000309508
Jul 1, 1893 Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K000309507
Bidgood, S. [5049], Tanzania K000190277
Bidgood, S. [6030], Tanzania K000468395
Bidgood, S. [5743], Tanzania K000468681
Harley, R.M. [14067], Bahia K000188800
Niyomdham, C. [1539], Thailand K000467440
Flotto, F. [7572], Thailand K000467441
Put [1978], Thailand K000467444
Shimizu, T. [11555], Thailand K000467445
Kerr, A.F.G. [12063], Thailand K000467446
Charoenphol, Ch. [3856], Thailand K000467447
Charoenphol, Ch. [3855], Thailand K000467448
Kerr, A.F.G. [6928], Thailand K000467452
Kerr, A.F.G. [12546], Thailand K000467453
Kerr, A.F.G. [11305], Thailand K000467454
Kerr, A.F.G. [15113], Thailand K000467458
Haniff [3632], Thailand K000467459
Collins, D.J. [1428], Thailand K000467465
Chantaranothai, P. [90/121], Thailand K000467477
Bidgood, S. [5505], Tanzania K000190735
s.coll. [29], Australia K000309509
Kerr, A.F.G. [11711], Thailand K000467442
Kloss, C.B. [6743], Thailand K000467464
Cunningham, A. [s.n.], Australia K000309510
Brown, R. [5911], Australia K000309506 isotype
Kerr, A.F.G. [6977], Thailand K000467451
Bidgood, S. [5190], Tanzania K000190418
Bidgood, S. [5191], Tanzania K000190419
Put [700], Thailand K000467476
Chantaranothai, P. [90/71], Thailand K000467479
Eaves, D [s.n.], Australia K000309505
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Meghalaya K001132969
Larsen, K. [2210], Thailand K000467449
Pierre, L. [s.n.], Thailand K000467455
Bidgood, S. [5052], Tanzania K000190280
Phusomsaeng, S. [54], Thailand K000467475
Bidgood, S. [5179], Tanzania K000190407
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132692
Kerr, A.F.G. [11057], Thailand K000467443
Niyomdham, C. [1508], Thailand K000467457
Kerr, A.F.G. [1895], Thailand K000467450
?Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000188825
Niyomdham, C. [1506], Thailand K000467456
Middleton, D.J. [2337], Thailand K000467480
Chantaranothai, P. [90/528], Thailand K000467478
Collins, D.J. [1895], Thailand Cyperus haspan subsp. juncoides K000467435
Kerr, A.F.G. [20211], Thailand Cyperus haspan subsp. juncoides K000467436
Parnell, J.A.N. [1699], Thailand Cyperus haspan subsp. juncoides K000467437
Chantaranothai, P., Chayamarit, K. [1172], Thailand Cyperus haspan subsp. juncoides K000467429
Rabil [241], Thailand Cyperus haspan subsp. juncoides K000467434
Chantaranothai, P. [889], Thailand Cyperus haspan subsp. juncoides K000467433
Chantaranothai, P. [1429], Thailand Cyperus haspan subsp. juncoides K000467430
Chantaranothai, P. [1430], Thailand Cyperus haspan subsp. juncoides K000467431
Parnell [95-430], Thailand Cyperus haspan subsp. juncoides K000467439
Chantaranothai, P et al [814a], Thailand Cyperus haspan subsp. juncoides K000467432
Parnell [95-488], Thailand Cyperus haspan subsp. juncoides K000467438
Oct 1, 2003 Harley, R.M. [26611], Bahia Cyperus haspan var. coarctatus K000188808
Oct 1, 2003 Carvalho, A.M. [3185], Bahia Cyperus haspan var. coarctatus K000188814
Apr 1, 1965 Luerssen, C [604], Australia Cyperus haspan var. dietrichiae K000309504 Unknown type material
Volkens, G. [2275], Tanzania Cyperus phaeorhizus K000321433 Unknown type material

First published in Sp. Pl.: 45 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Browning, J. & al. (2020). Flora Zambesiaca 14: 1-455. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cabezas, F., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2004). Checklist of the Cyperaceae of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko, Río Muni) Belgian Journal of Botany 137: 3-26.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Demissew, S., & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: i-xxviii, 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Govaerts, R. & Simpson, D.A. (2007). World Checklist of Cyperaceae. Sedges: 1-765. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hoenselaar, K., Verdcourt, B. & Beentje, H. (2010). Cyperaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-466.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Lye, K.A. & Thery, P. (2012). Flore du Gabon 44: 1-230. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Marais, W. & Araujo, A.C. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 202: 1-99. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Middleton, D.J. & al. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Singapore 7: 1-525. Singapore Botanic Gardens.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Silveira, G.H. & Longhi-Wagner, H.M. (2008). Cyperaceae Juss. no Morro Santana - Porto Alegre e Viamåo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Iheringia: Botânica 63: 295-320.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Velayos, M., Aedo, C., Cabezas, F., de la Estrella, M., Barberá, P. & Fero, M. (eds.) (2014). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 11: 1-416. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 379, 381 (1967).
  • C.B. Cl. in J. Linn. Soc. 21: 119 (1884)
  • Cherm. in Arch. Bot. Caen 7, Mém. 4: 8 (1936)
  • F.T.A. 8: 332
  • Kük. in Engl., Pflanzenr. Cyper. 247, incl. var. flaccidissimus Kük. (1936)
  • Sp. Pl. 45 (1753)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Browning, J. & al. (2020). Flora Zambesiaca 14: 1-455. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cabezas, F., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2004). Checklist of the Cyperaceae of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko, Río Muni) Belgian Journal of Botany 137: 3-26.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Espejo Serna, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (1997). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 5: 1-98. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Marais, W. & Araujo, A.C. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 202: 1-99. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by K. A. Lye [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • E.P. 4, 20 (101): 247 (1936)
  • F.T.A. 8: 332 (1902)
  • Fl. Eth. 6: 438 (1997).
  • Fl. Somalia 4: 117 (1995)
  • Haines & Lye, Sedges & Rushes E. Afr.: 168, figs. 317, 318 (1983), as halpan
  • Sp. Pl.: 45 (1753)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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