Scrophulariaceae, F.N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963
- Herbs or shrubs, rarely small trees
- Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate; stipules absent
- Flowers hermaphrodite, mostly zygomorphic
- Calyx imbricate or valvate
- Corolla-lobes imbricate
- Stamens often 4 or 2, rarely 5, inserted on the corolla and alternate with the lobes, sometimes the fifth stamen represented by a staminode; filaments free from each other; anthers 1-2-celled, opening lengthwise
- Ovules numerous on axile placentas Ovary superior, entire, usually 2-celled; style terminal
- Fruit a capsule or berry
- Seeds numerous, with fleshy endosperm
Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990
- Annual or perennial, terrestrial, amphibious or aquatic herbs, or leafless parasitic herbs lacking chlorophyll, shrubs or undershrubs, rarely trees, glabrous, variously pubescent or glandular-viscid
- Leaves opposite, alternate orverticillate, entire, toothed or variously lobed or dissected, or reduced to scales, estipulate
- Pedicels ebracteolate or bibracteolate Flowers solitary axillary or in terminal spikes, racemes, heads or panicles, arranged in racemes or cymes
- Flowers hermaphrodite, usually irregular, at times subregular
- Calyx inferior, persistent, usually 5-lobed, occasionally 4-, or rarely 3-lobed, usually more or less united, campanulate, tubular, or shortly so almost lacking distinct tube, equal, unequal, valvate, variously overlapping or open in bud
- Corolla tubular, campanulate, cylindric or ventricose or enlarged above; tube straight or variously curved to geniculate, at times basally produced into 1 or 2 spurs or sacs; limb usually 5- or 4-lobed, rarely 3–8-lobed, lobes subequal, more or less spreading, or clearly bilabiate with upper lip entire, emarginate or bilobed, erect, concave or galeate or at times flat or spreading, lower lip 3- (rarely 4-) lobed, spreading
- Stamens 4, didynamous or equal, or 2 with occasionally 2 reduced to staminodes, or 5 with fifth subrudimentary, rarely perfect Filaments inserted in corolla tube or at throat, filiform or dilated, occasionally with lower variously appendaged at base Anthers 1- orbilocular, free or frequently coherent, cells similar or with one smaller and sterile, connective often produced into 2 branches, each bearing cell
- Ovules many to numerous in each cell Ovary superior, sessile, entire, 2-, or rarely 3-celled, placentation central; style simple, entire or shortly cleft at apex; stigma small, capitate or clavate
- Fruit usually capsular, septicidal or loculicidal, sometimes both, occasionally dehiscing by pores, rarely indehiscent
- Seeds small, numerous, variously shaped, pitted, ridged or ribbed, rarely smooth
Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008
- Herbs, undershrubs, sometimes climbers or shrubs, rarely trees; many partial root parasites, a few wholly parasitic
- Leaves exstipulate, simple, alternate or opposite (especially lower ones), rarely all basal or the upper-most whorled, often variously lobed or dissected, toothed or entire
- Flowers hermaphrodite, zygomorphic (sometimes very slightly) usually in bracteate spikes or racemes, less often solitary in leaf-axils, or in cymes
- Calyx persistent; calyx-tube campanulate, tubular or almost none; calyx-teeth usually 4 or 5, rarely 3, sometimes calyx 2-lipped, valvate, imbricate or open in bud
- Corolla united; tube campanulate, cylindric or ventricose or enlarged above, straight or curved or bent, sometimes very short, sometimes with 1 or 2 spurs or sacs at the base, usually 4- or 5-lobed with the lobes more or less equal and all spreading, or distinctly 2-lipped, with the upper lip entire or 2-lobed, lower lip usually 3-lobed
- Stamens 4, didynamous or 2, rarely 3, 5 or 6–8; staminodes sometimes present
- Ovary superior, 2-locular, ovules numerous
- Fruit usually capsular, septicidal or loculicidal, rarely a berry and indehiscent, or fruit separating into 2 cocci.
- Alonsoa Ruiz & Pav.
- Ameroglossum Eb.Fisch., S.Vogel & A.V.Lopes
- Androya H.Perrier
- Antherothamnus N.E.Br.
- Anticharis Endl.
- Aptosimum Burch. ex Benth.
- Barthlottia E.Fisch.
- Bontia L.
- Buddleja Houst. ex L.
- Calamphoreus Chinnock
- Camptoloma Benth.
- Capraria L.
- Chaenostoma Benth.
- Chamaecrypta Schltr. & Diels
- Chenopodiopsis Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
- Colpias E.Mey. ex Benth.
- Cromidon Compton
- Cyrtandromoea Zoll.
- Dermatobotrys Bolus
- Diascia Link & Otto
- Diclis Benth.
- Diocirea Chinnock
- Dischisma Choisy
- Dolichostemon Bonati
- Eremogeton Standl. & L.O.Williams
- Eremophila R.Br.
- Freylinia Colla
- Glekia Hilliard
- Globulariopsis Compton
- Glumicalyx Hiern
- Glycocystis Chinnock
- Gomphostigma Turcz.
- Gosela Choisy
- Hebenstretia L.
- Hemimeris L.f.
- Ixianthes Benth.
- Jamesbrittenia Kuntze
- Leucophyllum Bonpl.
- Lyperia Benth.
- Manulea L.
- Manuleopsis Thell.
- Melanospermum Hilliard
- Microdon Choisy
- Myoporum Banks & Sol. ex G.Forst.
- Nathaliella B.Fedtsch.
- Nemesia Vent.
- Oftia Adans.
- Peliostomum E.Mey. ex Benth.
- Phygelius E.Mey. ex Benth.
- Phyllopodium Benth.
- Polycarena Benth.
- Pseudoselago Hilliard
- Ranopisoa J.-F.Leroy
- Rhabdotosperma Hartl
- × Scrophulari-verbascum P.Fourn.
- Scrophularia Tourn. ex L.
- Selago L.
- Strobilopsis Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
- Sutera Roth
- Teedia Rudolphi
- Tetraselago Junell
- Trieenea Hilliard
- Verbascum L.
- Zaluzianskya F.W.Schmidt
First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 117. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (as "Scrophulariae") (1789)
- APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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Plants and People Africa
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