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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia, Argentina.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FWTA]

Cyperaceae, Miss S. S. Hooper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Robust plant up to 1·6 m. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Obtuse, cylindrical, lax-spikeletted, golden, rayed spikes
Ecology
Near open water.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Very robust perennial with crowded stems on a short c. 1 cm thick woody rhizome, the scales of the rhizome breaking up into fibrous remains
Morphology Stem
Stems 40–150 cm long and 3–10 mm thick, triangular, smooth, the base slightly swollen
Morphology Leaves
Basal leaves many, up to 80 cm long and 8–20 mm wide, flat, scabrid at least on margins and major ribs; leaf-sheaths green to purple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spikes 2–5 x 1.5–2.5 cm when mature, with 15–60 spreading rather distant spikelets Inflorescence a 10–30 cm long and 10–40 cm wide open anthela consisting of 4–6 subsessile and stalked spikes and 5–15 stalked groups of spikes on 5–20 cm long inflorescence-branches (rays); primary involucral bracts leafy, the largest 30–60 cm long and 8–20 mm wide, erect or spreading
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 6–15 x c. 1.5 mm, linear but sometimes slightly curved, flattened, brown, 12–30-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 1.8–2.4 mm long, ovate-elliptic, reddish brown to golden with or without 2–3 nerves on each side of the excurrent green midrib
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 3-branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet 0.8–1 x 0.5–0.6 mm, triangular, elliptic, greyish, almost smooth.
Distribution
S1–3 widespread in tropical and subtropical parts of the Old World.
Ecology
Altitude below 200 m.

[FTEA]

Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

Type
Type: India, Tranquebar, König s.n. (LD, holo.)
Morphology General Habit
Perennial, very robust, up to 180 cm tall, with crowded culms on a short woody rhizome, 1 cm in diameter, the scales of the rhizome breaking up in fibrous remains.
Morphology Culms
Culms crowded, 40–150 cm long, 3–15 mm wide, trigonous, glabrous, the base slightly swollen
Morphology Leaves
Basal leaves many. Leaf sheath green to purple, 7–15 cm long. Leaf blade linear, flat, up to 64–140 cm long, 8–35 mm wide, scabrid on margins and primary vein, apex acuminate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucral bracts leaf-like, spreading, 5–9, lowermost 20–75 cm long, 8–28 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a simple to compound anthela, primary branches 7–11, 5–29 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets in dense, elongate clusters, sessile and at the end of primary and secondary branches, 15–120 per cluster, 3.4–12 mm long, 1–1.7 mm wide, rachilla straight.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes reddish-brown to golden with darker reddish-brown margin, ovate-elliptic, 1.2–2.9 mm long, 1.1–1.5 mm wide, keel green, with 2–3 veins on either side, apex acuminate to mucronate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 1.3–2.7 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 0.7–0.8 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet greyish, ellipsoid, trigonous, 0.6–1 mm long, 0.4–0.6 mm wide, almost smooth.

Native to:

Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Ethiopia, Ghana, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Mali, Mozambique, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Queensland, Senegal, Seychelles, Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zimbabwe

Cyperus exaltatus Retz. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Dec 1, 1891 Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], India K000592524
Dec 1, 1891 s.coll. [s.n.], India K000592537
Dec 1, 1891 Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K000309448 Unknown type material
Dec 1, 1891 s.coll. [s.n.], India K000592538
Dec 1, 1891 Brown, R. [5888], Australia K000309446 Unknown type material
Simpson, D. [1748], Thailand K000434897
Simpson, D. [1748], Thailand K000434896
Kerr, A.F.G. [11085], Thailand K000434895
Kerr, A.F.G. [21813], Thailand K000434894
Hooper, S.S. [2383], India K000592525
Nicolson, D.H. [HFP 2342], India K000592535
Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K000309447
Beil, A.S. [123 A], India K000592534
Raizada, M.B. [20700], India K000592536
Cook, C.D.K. [57], India K000592523

First published in Observ. Bot. 5: 11 (1788)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Edwards, S., Demissew, S., & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: i-xxviii, 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Govaerts, R. & Simpson, D.A. (2007). World Checklist of Cyperaceae. Sedges: 1-765. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hoenselaar, K., Verdcourt, B. & Beentje, H. (2010). Cyperaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-466.
  • Verloove, F. (2014). A conspectus of Cyperus s.l. (Cyperaceae) in Europe (incl. Azores, Madeira and Canary islands), with emphasis on non-native naturalised species Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 179-223.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 8: 370
  • Kük. in Engl., Pflanzenr. Cyper. 64. (1936)
  • Obs. 5: 11 (1789)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Browning, J. & al. (2020). Flora Zambesiaca 14: 1-455. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by K. A. Lye [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • E.P. 4, 20 (101): 64 (1936)
  • F.T.A. 8: 370 (1902)
  • Fl. Eth. 6: 444 (1997).
  • Fl. Somalia 4: 120 (1995)
  • Haines & Lye, Sedges & Rushes E. Afr.: 179, fig. 342 (1983)
  • Observ. Bot. 5: 11 (1788)

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0