According to Flora of Tropical East Africa[FTEA]
Asparagaceae, Sebsebe Demissew. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006
- Perennial scandent or erect shrubs or subshrubs, branching; rhizomes sympodial from where the branches are growing; roots often swollen and fusiform
- Spines present or absent; when present these are formed usually from the reduced leaves, occasionally from branches
- Leaves normally reduced and scale-like, the assimilating function taken by modified green branches (cladodes); in some genera the branches are transformed into flattened, leaf-like cladodes (phylloclades)
- Cladodes solitary or fascicled, subulate, angled or linear
- Inflorescence axillary or terminal, solitary, fascicled or assembled in racemes or “ umbels”
- Flowers unisexual or bisexual, actinomorphic, small, erect or pendulous
- Perianth with 6 tepals in two series, all similar in shape, free or fused at the base, white, cream, yellow or green
- Stamens 6, in two series, fused to the perianth segments, present both in unisexual and bisexual flowers, non-functional in female unisexual flowers; filaments free from each other, anthers introrse, dorsifixed; pollen grains sulcate
- Pistil with 3 carpels united to form a 2– 3-locular ovary with 1– 12 ovules in each locule; placentation axile; style short with capitate or lobed stigma
- Fruit a globose berry with 1– 2(– 3) seeds
- Seeds black, globose or truncate on one side, convex on the other
- Family represented by the genus Asparagus with two subgenera, subgenus >i>Asparagus and subgenus >i>Myrsiphyllum (S.T. Malcomber & Sebsebe Demissew in Kew Bull. 48(1): 63– 78 (1993)). The members are widely distributed in the old world. Most species are found in arid tropical regions and Mediterranean climates
According to Flora of Tropical East Africa under the synonym Eriospermaceae[FTEA]
Eriosphermaceae, Christopher Whitehouse, B.A.. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996
- Herbs with perennial tubers and annual aerial parts, glabrous or partly pubescent (not in East Africa)
- Tubers globose to irregularly shaped; flesh white, yellow, pink or purplish red; growing points one or more, protected by a neck of sheathing fibrous remains of leaf-bases
- Leaves 1-5, appearing with or after the flowers, erect to prostrate; blade linear to broadly ovate (sometimes circular or with enations in southern Africa), often with a distinct petiole-like base
- Inflorescence a simple raceme, few-many-flowered, cylindrical to corymbose, dense to lax, upper flowers sometimes sterile or aborted; peduncle erect to suberect, sometimes subtended by a leaf-like sheath; bracts minute, solitary, at the base of a single pedicel; pedicels short to long, erect to spreading, articulated at the apex
- Flowers small, regular, rotate, campanulate or triangular, opening in the sun; tepals in 2 whorls of 3, connate at the base, subequal to equal or dimorphic, white, pink, yellow or green and often with a darker coloured midnerve, persistent
- Stamens 6, hypogynous, joined to the base of the tepals; filaments filiform to broadly lanceolate, white, yellow, orange or purple blotched; anthers, dorsifixed, versatile, subglobose to oval, introrse
- Ovary superior, sessile, with 3 locules, each with 2-6 axile ovules; style terete; stigma apical, small
- Fruit a loculicidal capsule, turbinate to ovoid
- Seeds oval to comma-shaped, densely covered with hairs, silvery white when fresh, turning brown with age
According to Flora of West Tropical Africa under the synonym Agavaceae[FWTA]
Agavaceae, F.N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968
- Rootstock a rhizome; stem short or well developed
- Leaves usually crowded on or at the base of the stem often thick and fleshy, entire or with prickly teeth on the margin
- Flowers bisexual, polygamous or dioecious, racemose to paniculate or subcapitate, sometimes in a very large thyrse, bracteate
- Perianth segments free or united; corona never present
- Stamens 6, inserted at the base of the lobes or on the tube; filaments filiform or thickened, free; anthers introrse, 2-locular, opening lengthwise
- Ovary superior or inferior, often beaked, 3-locular, with axile placentas; style slender Ovules numerous and superposed in two series to solitary
- Fruit a capsule or berry
- Seeds with fleshy endosperm
According to Flora of Tropical East Africa under the synonym Dracaenaceae[FTEA]
Dracenaceae, Geoffrey Mwachala & Paul Mbugua, Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2007
- Trees, shrubs or herbs
- Leaves alternate, rosulate, distichous or spirally arranged, sometimes in pseudo-whorls, sessile, the base often (semi-)amplexicaul, succulent or not; primary venation parallel
- Inflorescence usually a terminal panicle, occasionally appearing racemose by reduction of primary branches; pedicel of a peg-like basal part crowned by a distinct joint, and an obconical receptacle, persistent in fruit
- Flowers in irregular clusters, 1–several per cluster, subsessile, with a bract subtending each flower, fragrant, nocturnal; perianth tubular, with 6 spreading or recurving lobes
- Stamens 6, inserted in the throat, with inflated or filiform filaments; anthers dorsifixed, versatile, opening by lateral slits
- Ovary superior, free, globose, 3-celled; ovules erect, solitary in each of the three chambers; style filiform; stigma capitate
- Fruit a berry, 1–3-seeded
- Seeds rounded, bony, white.
According to Flora of Tropical East Africa under the synonym Hyacinthaceae[FTEA]
Hyacinthaceae, Brita Stedje, Ph.D.. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996
- Herbs with bulbs
- Leaves in a basal rosette from the apex of the bulb or lacking, filiform, lanceolate or cordate, with or without spots, sometimes with papillae or hairs
- Scape leafless
- Inflorescence most often a raceme or a spike, rarely much branched and complex, if much branched then leaves lacking or strongly reduced
- Flowers greenish to white or yellowish, purplish to purple or blue, often with a green or dark midrib
- Perianth-segments 6, free or fused into a shorter or longer tube
- Ovaries with 1-many ovules per locule
- Fruit a loculicidal capsule, rarely schizocarpous
- Seeds black and subglobular or flattened, sometimes winged
- Acanthocarpus Lehm.
- Agave L.
- Albuca L.
- Alrawia (Wendelbo) Perss. & Wendelbo
- Androstephium Torr.
- Anemarrhena Bunge
- Anthericum L.
- Aphyllanthes L.
- Arthropodium R.Br.
- Asparagus Tourn. ex L.
- Aspidistra Ker Gawl.
- Austronea Mart.-Azorín, M.B.Crespo, M.Pinter & Wetschnig
- Barnardia Lindl.
- Beaucarnea Lem.
- Behnia Didr.
- Bellevalia Lapeyr.
- Beschorneria Kunth
- Bessera Schult.f.
- Bloomeria Kellogg
- Bowiea Harv. ex Hook.f.
- Brimeura Salisb.
- Brodiaea Sm.
- Camassia Lindl.
- Chamaexeros Benth.
- Chlorogalum (Lindl.) Kunth
- Chlorophytum Ker Gawl.
- Clara Kunth
- Comospermum Rauschert
- Convallaria L.
- Cordyline Comm. ex R.Br.
- Danae Medik.
- Dandya H.E.Moore
- Dasylirion Zucc.
- Daubenya Lindl.
- Diamena Ravenna
- Dichelostemma Kunth
- Dichopogon Kunth
- Diora Ravenna
- Dipcadi Medik.
- Disporopsis Hance
- Diuranthera Hemsl.
- Dracaena Vand. ex L.
- Drimia Jacq. ex Willd.
- Drimiopsis Lindl. & Paxton
- Echeandia Ortega
- Eremocrinum M.E.Jones
- Eriospermum Jacq. ex Willd.
- Eucomis L'Hér.
- Eustrephus R.Br.
- Fessia Speta
- Furcraea Vent.
- Fusifilum Raf.
- Hagenbachia Nees & Mart.
- Hastingsia S.Watson
- Hemiphylacus S.Watson
- Herreria Ruiz & Pav.
- Herreriopsis H.Perrier
- Hesperaloe Engelm.
- Hesperocallis A.Gray
- Hesperoyucca (Engelm.) Trel.
- Heteropolygonatum M.N.Tamura & Ogisu
- Hooveria D.W.Taylor & D.J.Keil
- Hosta Tratt.
- Hyacinthella Schur
- Hyacinthoides Heist. ex Fabr.
- Hyacinthus Tourn. ex L.
- Jaimehintonia B.L.Turner
- Lachenalia J.Jacq. ex Murray
- Laxmannia R.Br.
- Ledebouria Roth
- Leopoldia Parl.
- Leucocrinum Nutt. ex A.Gray
- Liriope Lour.
- Lomandra Labill.
- Maianthemum F.H.Wigg.
- Massonia Thunb. ex Houtt.
- Merwilla Speta
- Milla Cav.
- Muilla S.Watson ex Benth.
- Muscari Mill.
- Namophila U.Müll.-Doblies & D.Müll.-Doblies
- Nolina Michx.
- Ophiopogon Ker Gawl.
- Ornithogalum L.
- Oziroe Raf.
- Paradisea Mazzuc.
- Peliosanthes Andrews
- Petronymphe H.E.Moore
- Polygonatum Mill.
- Prospero Salisb.
- Pseudogaltonia (Kuntze) Engl.
- Pseudomuscari Garbari & Greuter
- Pseudoprospero Speta
- Puschkinia Adams
- Reineckea Kunth
- Resnova van der Merwe
- Rohdea Roth
- Romnalda P.F.Stevens
- Ruscus L.
- Schizocarphus van der Merwe
- Schoenolirion Durand
- Scilla L.
- Semele Kunth
- Sowerbaea Sm.
- Speirantha Baker
- Spetaea Wetschnig & Pfosser
- Theropogon Maxim.
- Thysanotus R.Br.
- Trichopetalum Lindl.
- Trihesperus Herb.
- Triteleia Douglas ex Lindl.
- Triteleiopsis Hoover
- Tupistra Ker Gawl.
- Veltheimia Gled.
- Xerolirion A.S.George
- Yucca L.
- Zagrosia Speta
- Zingela N.R.Crouch, Mart.-Azorín, M.B.Crespo, M.Pinter & M.Á.Alonso
First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 40. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (1789)
- APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0