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This species is accepted, and its native range is Central & S. U.S.A. to Tropical & Subtropical America.
Euphorbia heterophylla (Euphorbiaceae)

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb erect to 1 m high, often tinged red; stem hollow; branches sparse, glabrous to sparsely pilose towards the apices.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with a petiole to 2(4) cm long; stipules modified as fairly conspicuous purplish glands; lamina to 12 × 6 cm, ovate, obtuse at the apex, cuneate at the base, with minute distant gland-tipped teeth at the margin, occasionally more coarsely toothed, glabrous to sparsely pilose around the edges on the upper surface, pilose with septate hairs especially on the midrib and nerves on the lower surface, glabrescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes terminal and axillary, each forking c. 5 times, with rays progressively shorter from c. 15 cm to c. 2 mm long and cyathia densely clustered.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Basal bracts similar to the leaves but paler green, progressively smaller, more lanceolate and sessile above.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Cyathia
Cyathia c. 3.5 × 2.5 mm with barrel-shaped involucres, glabrous; gland peltate, 1 mm long, funnel-shaped, the opening circular, 1.2 mm across, often red-rimmed; lobes c. 1.3 mm long, subcircular, deeply and sharply toothed with margins minutely ciliate.
sex Male
Male flowers: bracteoles few, ligulate, feathery; stamens 4 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower: ovary pedicellate, glabrous or occasionally with minute scattered hairs, the perianth forming an obvious rim; styles c. 1 mm long, occasionally minutely puberulous, bifid to halfway. Male flowers: bracteoles few, ligulate, feathery; stamens 4 mm long.
sex Female
Female flower: ovary pedicellate, glabrous or occasionally with minute scattered hairs, the perianth forming an obvious rim; styles c. 1 mm long, occasionally minutely puberulous, bifid to halfway.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule exserted on a reflexed pedicel to 6 mm long, c. 4.5 × 5.5 mm, deeply 3-lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2.6 × 2.4 mm, conical with acute apex, bluntly verrucose, blackish-brown.

[FWTA]

Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A rather lax erect annual weed, to 3 ft. high; locally abundant.
Note
In most specimens from our area the upper leaves and bracts are either entirely green, or with whitish blotches at the base, or tinged purplish on the petiole, nerves and margins; Deighton 4505 and Meikle 877 are specimens of the form with red or orange blotches which is sometimes cultivated.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
clavo de cristo, golondrina, gota de sangre, viernes santo, yerba lechera

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb to 60 cm high, with branches glabrous to sparsely pilose towards the apices
Morphology Leaves
Leaves ovate, to 6 x 3 cm, margin with minute distant gland-tipped teeth, both surfaces, especially the lower, sparsely pilose with septate hairs, glabrescent; petiole to 2 cm long; stipular glands purplish
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Cyathia densely clustered in terminal and axillary cymes, forking 2–5 times with progressively shorter rays from 5 cm to 2 mm long; basal bracts similar to the leaves but progressively smaller and subsessile above Cyathia glabrous, 3.5 mm in diam.; gland peltate, funnel-shaped with a circular opening 1.2 mm wide, often red-rimmed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles 1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule exserted on a recurved pedicel 6 mm long, deeply 3-lobed, 4.5 x 5.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds conical with acute apex, 2.6 x 2.4 mm, bluntly tuberculate, blackish brown.
Distribution
S1, 2 naturalized throughout tropical Africa, a pantropical weed originating from Central America.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–375 m.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual herb to 1 m. high, with branches glabrous to sparsely pilose towards the apices, often tinged red.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves ovate, to 12 × 6 cm., base cuneate, apex obtuse, margin with minute distant gland-tipped teeth, occasionally more coarsely toothed, upper surface glabrous to sparsely pilose around the edges, lower surface pilose with septate hairs especially on the midrib and nerves, glabrescent; petiole to 2(–4) cm. long; glandular stipules fairly large, purplish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Cyathia
Cyathia densely clustered in axillary and terminal cymes forking ± 5 times, with progressively shorter rays from ± 15 cm. to ± 2 mm. long; basal bracts similar to the leaves but paler green, progressively smaller, more lanceolate and subsessile above. Cyathia glabrous, ± 3.5 × 2.5 mm., with goblet-shaped involucres; gland peltate, funnel-shaped, 1 mm. long, the opening circular, 1.2 mm. across, red-rimmed; lobes subcircular, ± 1.3 mm. long, deeply and sharply toothed with margins minutely ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers:bracteoles few, ligulate, feathery; stamens 4 mm. long. Female flower:ovary pedicellate, glabrous or occasionally with minute scattered hairs, the perianth forming an obvious rim; styles ± 1 mm. long, occasionally minutely puberulous, bifid to halfway.
sex Male
Male flowers:bracteoles few, ligulate, feathery; stamens 4 mm. long.
sex Female
Female flower:ovary pedicellate, glabrous or occasionally with minute scattered hairs, the perianth forming an obvious rim; styles ± 1 mm. long, occasionally minutely puberulous, bifid to halfway.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule exserted on a reflexed pedicel to 6 mm. long, deeply 3-lobed, ± 4.5 × 5.5 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds conical with acute apex, 2.6 × 2.4 mm., blackish brown, surface bluntly tuberculate.
Habitat
A weed of cultivation; 150–3000 m.
Distribution
K1 K3 K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 throughout tropical Africa, a pantropical weed originating from Central America

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 80 - 2000 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

Native to:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Chile North, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, South Dakota, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Congo, Cook Is., Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gabon, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Kazan-retto, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Malawi, Maldives, Marianas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Mexican Pacific Is., Mozambique, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oman, Palestine, Phoenix Is., Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South China Sea, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, Wake I., West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Euphorbia heterophylla L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2008 Pringle, C.G. [4552], Jalisco K000476567
Jan 1, 2008 Hinton, G.B. [2940], México State K000476561
Jan 1, 2008 Hinton, G.B. [11576], Guerrero K000476568
Apr 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1703], Cameroon K000026641
Jan 1, 1992 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1219], Cameroon K000011534
Mexia, Y. [8823], Mexico K000478150
Spruce, R. [6055], Ecuador K000201876
Hinton, G.B. [13222], Michoacán K000476554
Hinton, G.B. [13247], Michoacán K000476556
Hinton, G.B. [5024], México State K000476559
Hinton, G.B. [6636], Guerrero K000476566
Ule, E. [8206], Brazil K001210903
Irwin, H.S. [12232], Brazil K001210911
Irwin, H.S. [8119], Brazil K001210913
Nelson, E.W. [4079], Mexico K000478149
Hinton, G.B. [1995], México State K000476560
Maas, P.J.M. [417], Brazil K001210907
Hinton, G.B. [13247], Michoacán K000476555
Irwin, H.S. [15700], Brazil K001210909
Harley, R.M. [20524], Brazil K001210906
Irwin, H.S. [12041], Brazil K001210910
Mori, S.A. [11728], Brazil K001210915
Irwin, H.S. [9147], Brazil K001210912
Folli, D.A. [3322], Brazil K001210901
Harley, R.M. [16887], Brazil K001210905
Ratter, J.A. [3231], Brazil K001210908
Hinton, G.B. [4667], México State K000476565
Gaumer, G.F. [136], Mexico K000478148
Mildbraed, G. W. J. [10785], Cameroon K000180550
Hinton, G.B. [5186], México State K000476558
Hinton, G.B. [1995], México State K000476563
Hoehne, W. [14969], Brazil K001210904
Hinton, G.B. [13227], Michoacán K000476557
Maia [s.n.], Brazil K001210914
Hinton, G.B. [12068], Michoacán K000476553
Hinton, G.B. [1784], México State K000476562
Smith, L.B. [11169], Brazil K001210902
Hinton, G.B. [4673], México State K000476564

First published in Sp. Pl.: 453 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Christenhusz, M.J.M. (2002). Notes on Euphorbia and Pedilanthus (Euphorbiaceae) in the Guianas Harvard Papers in Botany 7: 1-6.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Vladimirov, V., Aybeke, N. & Kit Tan (eds.) (2017). New floristic records in the Balkans: 32 Phytologia Balcanica 23: 119-146.
  • Yang, Y., Riina, R., Morawetz, J.J., Haevermans, T., Aubriot, X. & Berry, P.E. (2012). Molecular phylogenetics and classification of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) Taxon 61: 764-789.
  • da Silva, O.L.M., Cordeiro, I. & Caruzo, M.B.R. (2014). Synopsis of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Phytotaxa 181: 193-215.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Berhaut Fl. Sen. 196.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 453 (1753)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
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  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
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  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
  • Vladimirov, V., Aybeke, N. & Kit Tan (eds.) (2017). New floristic records in the Balkans: 32 Phytologia Balcanica 23: 119-146.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
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Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by S. Carter [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 76 (1952).
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  • L., Sp. Pl.: 453 (1753).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0