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  1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Homalomena Schott

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to SW. Pacific.


    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.

    General Description
    HABIT : evergreen, usually aromatic (anise-scented) herbs, stem shortly aerial, more rarely arborescent or hypogeal. LEAVES : several, rarely distichous ( H. geniculata , H. disticha). PETIOLE : rarely aculeate or pubescent, rarely geniculate apically ( H. disticha), sheath usually less than half as long as petiole. BLADE : lanceolate or elliptic or oblong or subtriangular or cordate to sagittate, rarely peltate, usually glabrous, rarely pubescent on midrib and veins; primary lateral veins pinnate, running into marginal vein, secondary and tertiary lateral veins parallel-pinnate. INFLORESCENCE : 1-6 (or more) in each floral sympodium. PEDUNCLE : shorter than petiole. SPATHE : erect, often becoming green, more rarely white or yellow-green or red, persistent, usually not constricted, ellipsoid to boat-shaped, more rarely constricted between tube and blade and then tube convolute, blade gaping at anthesis and afterwards closing. SPADIX : shorter or subequal to spathe, stipitate or sessile, female zone cylindric, male zone usually entirely fertile, contiguous with and longer than female zone, rarely bearing staminodes basally, or very rarely separated by a ± naked interstice. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : 2-4-androus, rarely 5-6-androus, very rarely 1-androus ( H. monandra), stamens free, truncate apically, filament absent or distinct, connective thick, thecae ovoid, ellipsoid or oblong, opening by longitudinal slit, rarely by transversal slit. POLLEN : extruded in strands, inaperturate, ellipsoid to oblong, small (mean 22 µm., range 12-31 µm.), exine perfectly psilate in most species, rarely obscurely fossulate. STERILE MALE FLOWERS : 2-4-androus, sometimes present at base of fertile male zone, staminodia subprismatic, somewhat rounded apically. FEMALE FLOWER : gynoecium ovoid or oblong or subglobose, usually with single, anterior staminode (rarely 2, very rarely 3), equalling or half as long as ovary, sometimes absent ( H. lindenii), ovary 2-4-(-5)-locular, ovules many, hemianatropous, funicle long, placenta axile to pseudoaxile, style shortly narrowed or absent, stigma discoid, subhemispheric, subcapitate or slightly 2-4-lobed. BERRY : obovoid or subglobose or cylindric, locules many-seeded, rarely few-seeded. SEED : ellipsoid or elongate ellipsoid, testa thick, distinctly or only slightly costate, embryo axile, elongate, endosperm copious.
    Trop. & Subtrop. Asia, SW. Pacific, C. & S. Trop. America.
    Tropical humid forest, swamp forest, rarely in open swamps; terrestrial in leaf litter on forest floor, along forest streams, on road banks, on well-drained slopes in moist forest, rarely rheophytes.
    Terrestrial, rarely rheophytic; usually aromatic (anise scented - Neotropics; variously of camphor, mango-skin; ginger, etc. - Asian tropics); petiole always pulvinate ca. 2/3 along length, rarely terminally at insertion of leaf blade - Asian tropics exc. Chamaecladon supergroup; leaf blade simple, lanceolate to sagittate, fine venation parallel-pinnate; flowers unisexual, perigone absent; stamens free. Differs from Furtadoa in male flowers consisting of 2-6 stamens without pistillodes, ovaries incompletely 2-5 locular and placentas parietal and axile. Differs from Philodendron mainly in shoot architecture, and in being always terrestrial, never climbing (but rhizome aften considerably elongated - 'geophilous climbers' - or epiphytic, endothecium with cell wall thickenings, presence (often) of staminodes in female zone and being mostly tropical Asian (except Homalomena sect. Curmeria ).



    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Philippines, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

    Accepted Species


    Other Data

    Homalomena Schott appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hay, A. [2049], Malaysia 52037.000
    Boyce, P.C. [242], Brunei 49926.000
    Boyce, P.C. [747], Malaysia 59092.000
    Boyce, P.C. [916], Thailand 59591.000
    Boyce, P.C. [933], Thailand 59594.000
    Boyce, P.C. [886], Thailand 59595.000
    Boyce, P.C. [792], Malaysia 59856.000
    Boyce, P.C. [777], Malaysia 59857.000
    Boyce, P.C. [917], Thailand 60528.000
    Boyce, P.C. [1062], Malaysia 62775.000
    Boyce, P.C. [1200], Vietnam 63241.008
    Boyce, P.C. [1354], Bangladesh 63860.000
    Boyce, P.C. [1418], Malaysia 63965.000
    Paterson, A. [346], Indonesia 37080.000
    Johns, R. [7741], Indonesia 59400.000
    Johns, R., Indonesia 61380.000
    Boyce [794], Malaysia 59052.000
    Herscovitch, C., Australia 61449.000
    Herscovitch, C., Australia 61450.000
    Herscovitch, C., Australia 61451.000
    Herscovitch, C., Australia 61452.000
    Herscovitch, C., Australia 61453.000
    Herscovitch, C., Australia 63712.000
    Herscovitch, C., Australia 63758.000
    Herscovitch, C., Australia 63760.000
    Wiriadinata, H. [13335], Sulawesi K000501410


    First published in H.W.Schott & S.L.Endlicher, Melet. Bot.: 20 (1832)

    Accepted by

    • Boyce, P.C. & Wong, S.Y. (2009). Studies on Homalomeneae (Araceae) of Borneo IV: Homalomena specimens in the herbarium Beccarianum-Malesia (FI-B) of the Museo di Storia Naturale - Sezione Botanica "F.Parlatore" dell'Università di Firenze Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 64: 169-173.
    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew