Skip to main content
This genus is accepted, and its native range is America, W. Indian Ocean to NW. Pacific and Australia.
Callicarpa sp (Verbenaceae)

[KBu]

Bramley, G.L.C. 2013. The genus Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) in the Philippines. Kew Bulletin 68: 369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9456-y

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or small trees
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, decussate, sometimes with one apparently alternate leaf1 between opposite pairs, internode length often variable petiolate or decurrent to stem
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic. Calyx cupular or ± tubular, divided into 4 – 7 lobes near the apex, persistent, sometimes remaining intact, accrescent, surrounding mature fruit, sometimes breaking open and partly falling away but subtending mature fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens epipetalous, inserted at or near the base of the corolla tube, part of the filament and the anther exserted or the anther exserted only, anthers with numerous yellow sessile glands where they attach to the connective, either ovate or elliptic, dehiscing through longitudinal slits, or oblong, dehiscing through a pore-like opening at the apex then splitting longitudinally towards the base as anther matures
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, yellow, pale blue, pink or purple, tubular, with as many lobes as calyx, lobes erect, patent, or reflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 4 – 7 celled, 1 – 2 ovules in each cell
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma capitate or with 4 – 5 (7) symmetric lobes, glandular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit subtended by or partially to fully enclosed by persistent calyx, maturing red, white, purple or black a drupe with a fleshy exocarp over 4 – 10 (12, 14) 1-seeded pyrenes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence an indeterminate thyrse with opposite dichasial cymes and occasionally alternate dichasial cymes (e.g C pentandra) dichasial cymes axillary or supra-axillary pedunculate, ramiflorous or cauliflorous subtended by leaf-like bracts
Type
Type species = Callicarpa americana L.

[LKGF]

Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

Morphology General Habit
Small trees or shrubs, rarely lianas
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, decussate or in whorls of three
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence axillary, cymose, flowers white, blue, violet, mauve to purple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular or shortly campanulate, 4- lobed, not accrescent in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 4- (rarely 5-) lobed, tubular to infundibular or hypocratiform, actinomorphic
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, rarely 5-7, epipetalous, exserted, anthers oblong or elliptic, dorsifixed, thecae parallel, opening by longitudinal slits or by terminal pores
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style terminal, usually exserted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma peltate or capitate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 4-locular (rarely 5-locular)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit drupaceous, ± globose with fleshy exocarp, and hard endocarp separating into 4 stony pyrenes, each containing a single seed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed exalbuminous.
Note
2n = 16 or 18.  Chang (1951) has proposed two sections based on stamen structure.  Sect. Callicarpa: anthers ovoid, dehiscingby longitudinal slits, and Sect. Verticirima H.-T. Chang: anthers oblong,dehiscing by apical pores.
Distribution
About 140 species, temperate, subtropical and tropical Asia and America, tropical Australia, and some Pacific islands.

Native to:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Florida, Georgia, Guatemala, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Maryland, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., North Carolina, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oklahoma, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Solomon Is., South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia

Introduced into:

Delaware, New Zealand North, Réunion

Callicarpa L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 111 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Bramley, G.L. (2009). The genus Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) on Borneo Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 159: 416-455.
  • Bramley, G.L.C. (2013). The genus Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) in the Philippines Kew Bulletin 68: 369-418.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Leeratiwong, C., Chantaranothai, P. & Paton, A.J. (2009). A synopsis of the genus Callicarpa L. (Lamiaceae) in Thailand Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 37: 36-58.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • (Linnaeus 1753: 111)
  • Argent et al. (1997: 653)
  • Argent, G., Saridan, A., Campbell, E. J. F., Wilkie, P., Fairweather, G., Hadiah, J. T., Middleton, D. J., Pendry, C., Pinard, M., Warwick, M. & Yulita, K. S. (eds) (1997). Manual of the larger and more important non dipterocarp trees of Central Kalimanta
  • Ashton, P. S. (1997). Before the memory fades: some notes on the indigenous forests of the Philippines. Sandakania 9: 1 – 19.
  • Atkins, S. (1999). Callicarpa japonica (Labiatae). Curtis’ Bot. Mag. 16: 79 – 83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Balete, D., Tabao, M. & Tabaranza, B. (2008). Podogymnura aureospinula. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. .
  • BirdLife International (2010a). Important Bird Area factsheet: Basilan Natural Biotic Area, Philippines. Downloaded from the Data Zone at http://www.birdlife.org on 8/6/2010
  • BirdLife International (2010b). Important Bird Areas factsheet: Cuernos de Negros. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/11/2010).
  • BirdLife International (2010c). Important Bird Area factsheet: Mount Apo Natural Park, Philippines. Downloaded from the Data Zone at http://www.birdlife.org on 22/6/2010
  • BirdLife International (2010d). Important Bird Areas factsheet: Mount Pulag National Park. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/11/2010)
  • Blanco, F. M. (1837). Flora de Filipinas. Inprenta de Sto. Thomas por D. Candido Lopez, Manila.
  • Blume, C. L. (1823). Catalogus van eenige der merkwaardigste zoo in- als uit-heemsche gewassen, te vinden in's lands plantentuin te Buitenzorg. Batavia.
  • Bramley (2009)
  • Bramley et al. (2011).
  • Bramley, G. L. C. (2009). The genus Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) on Borneo. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 159: 416 – 455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Bramley, G. L. C., Forest, F. & de Kok, R. P. J. (2009). Troublesome tropical mints: re-examining Vitex (Lamiaceae) and its relations in South East Asia. Taxon 58: 500 – 510.
  • Bramley, G. L. C., Go, R. & de Kok, R. P. J. with contributions by Wearn, J. A. & Mabberley, D. J. (2011). Lamiaceae. In: E. Soepadmo, L. G. Saw, R. C. K. Chung & R. Kiew (eds), Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak 7. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Sabah
  • Brown, R. (1810). Prodromus florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van-Diemen. Typis R. Taylor et socii, Londini.
  • Brown, W. H. (1921). Minor products of Philippine Forests, Medicinal Uses of Plants 3. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Bureau of Forestry Bulletin No. 22. Bureau of Printing, Manila.
  • Calabrese, G. M. & Velayos, M. (2009). Type specimens in the Vidal Herbarium at the Real Jardin Botanico Madrid. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 159: 292 – 299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Candolle, A. P. de (ed.) (1847). Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 11: 522 – 700. Treuttel & Würtz, Paris.
  • Chang H-T. (1951). A Review of the Chinese species of Callicarpa. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 269 – 312.
  • Chen & Gilbert (1994: 4)
  • Chen et al. (1998)
  • Chen, S. L. & Gilbert, M. G. (1994). Verbenaceae. In: Wu Zheng-Yi & P. H. Raven (eds), Flora of China 17: 1 – 49. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Chen, T. T., Chaw, S. M. & Yang Y. P. (1998). A revision on Callicarpa (Verbenaceae) of Taiwan. Taiwania 43: 330 – 345.
  • Conservation International (2011). M. McGinley (topic ed.). Biological diversity in the Philippines. In: C. J. Cleveland (ed.), Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment Washington, D.C. (
  • Coode et al. (1996: 329)
  • Coode, M. J. E., Dransfield, J., Forman, L. L., Kirkup, D. W. & Said, I. M. (1996). Checklist of Brunei Darussalem. Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources, State of Brunei Darussalam.
  • Dickerson, R. E., Merrill, E. D., McGregor, R. C., Schultze, W., Taylor, E. H. & Hare, A. W. (1928). Distribution of Life in the Philippines. Philippine Bureau of Science.
  • Elmer, A. D. E. (1908). Three Score of New Plants. Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 2: 463 – 526.
  • Elmer, A. D. E. (1910). The Callicarpae of Mount Apo. Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 3: 861 – 866.
  • Elmer, A. D. E. (1915.) Two Hundred Twenty Six New Species — II. Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 8: 2719 – 2884.
  • Elmer, A. D. E. (1938). Miscellaneous new species. Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 10: 3673 – 3810.
  • Forman, L. L. (1997). Notes concerning the typification of names of William Roxburgh’s species of phanerogams. Kew Bull. 52: 513 – 534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Fosberg, F. R. & Sachet, M-H. (1979). Callicarpa erioclona Schauer (sensu stricto). Phytologia 41: 363 – 365.
  • Foxworthy, F. W. (1909). Indo Malayan Woods. Philipp. J. Sci. 4: 409 – 592.
  • Harley et al. (2004: 267)
  • Harley, R. M., Atkins, S., Budantsev, A. L., Cantino, P. D., Conn, B. J., Grayer, R., Harley, M. M., de Kok, R. P. J., Krestovskaja, T., Morales, R., Paton, A. J., Ryding, O. & Upson, T. (2004). Labiatae. In: J. W. Kadereit (ed.), K. Kubitzki, The Familie
  • Hayek, A. (1906). Verbenaceae novae herbaria Vindobonensis. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 2: 86 – 88.
  • Heaney, L. R. (1986). Biogeography of mammals in SE Asia: estimates of rates of colonization, extinction, and speciation. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 28: 127 – 165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Hemsley, W. (1890). Enumeration of all plants known from China proper, Formosa, Hainan, The Corea, The Luchou Archipelago and the Island of Hong Kong, together with their distribution and synonymy. J. Linn. Soc., Bot.: 26 (complete volume).
  • Hickey, L. J. (1979). A revised classification of the architecture of dicotyledonous leaves. In: C. R. Metcalfe & L. Chalk (eds), Anatomy of the Dicotyledons, Vol. 1 (2nd Ed.), pp. 25 – 39. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission, IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
  • Jussieu, A. L. (1806). Observations sur la famille des plantes Verbénacées. Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 7: 63 – 77.
  • Kessler (2000: 191)
  • Kessler, P. J. A. (2000). Secondary forest trees of Kalimantan: a manual to 300 selected species. MOFEC-Tropenbos-Kalimantan Project, Balikpapan, Indonesia.
  • King, G. & Gamble, J. S. (1909). Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula — Family XC Verbenaceae. J. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 21: 794 – 869 [1004 – 1079].
  • Koidzumi, G. (1925). Contributiones ad congnitionem Florae Asiae Orientalis. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 39: 1 – 32.
  • Koorders, S. H. (1898). Verslag eener botanische dienstreis door de Minahasa tevens eerste overzicht de Flora van N. O. Celebes. Meded. Lands. Plantentuin 19 (complete volume).
  • Lam & Bakhuizen (1921)
  • Lam (1919: 45)
  • Lam, H. J. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1921). Revision of the Verbenaceae of the Dutch East-Indies and surrounding countries. Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg série III, 3: 1 – 116 & I – III.
  • Lam, H. J. (1919). The Verbenaceae of the Malayan Archipelago. de Waal, Groningen.
  • Lamarck, J. B. A. P. M. (1785). Encyclopédie méthodique: botanique Vol. 1 (2). Paris.
  • Leeratiwong, C., Chantaranothai, P. & Paton, A. (2007). Notes on the genus Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) in Thailand. Thai. For. Bull., Bot. 35: 73 – 79.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species Plantarum, edition 1. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae [Stockholm].
  • Linnaeus, C. (1818) (eds J. J. Roemer & J. A. Schultes). Systema Vegetabilium: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis et synonymiis. Editio nova, speciebus inde ab editione XV. Sumtibus J. G. Cottae, Stuttgardtiae.Googl
  • Maximowicz, C. J. (1887). Diagnoses plantarum novarum asiaticarum. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 31: 12 – 121.
  • Merrill (1923: 382)
  • Merrill, E. D. & Merritt, M. L. (1910). The Flora of Mount Pulog. Philipp. J. Sci. 5, 5: 287 – 404.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1905). New or Noteworthy Philippine Plants, III. Philipp. Gov. Lab. Bur. Bull. 29: 5 – 62.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1906). The Flora of Lamao Forest Reserve. Philipp. J. Sci. 1, Suppl. 1 – 142.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1907). The Flora of Mount Halcon, Mindoro. Philipp. J. Sci. 3, 4: 251 – 310.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1908a). On a collection of plants from the Batanes and Babuyanes Islands. Philipp. J. Sci. 3: 385 – 463.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1908b). New or noteworthy Philippine Plants, VI. Philipp. J. Sci. 3: 219 – 268.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1909). The Malayan, Australasian and Polynesian Elements in the Philippine Flora. Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, 2 series Suppl. III: 276 – 306.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1912). New or Noteworthy Philippine Plants IX. Philipp. J. Sci. 7: 259 – 357.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1915a). New or Noteworthy Philippine plants, XI. Philipp. J. Sci., C 10: 1 – 84.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1915b). Genera and species erroneously credited to the Philippine flora. Philipp. J. Sci., C, 10: 171 – 194.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1916). Reliquiae Robinsonianae. Philipp. J. Sci., C 11: 243 – 320.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1917a). Notes on the flora of Kwangtung Province, China. Philipp. J. Sci. 12: 99 – 112.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1917b). New Philippine Shrubs and Trees. Philipp. J. Sci. 12: 263 – 304.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1918). New or Noteworthy Philippine plants, XIII. Philipp. J. Sci., C 13: 1 – 66.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1919). New or Noteworthy Philippine Plants, XV. Philipp. J. Sci. 14: 365 – 458.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1920). New or Noteworthy Philippine plants, XVI. Philipp. J. Sci. 17: 239 – 324.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1922). Noteworthy Philippine Plants XVII. Philipp. J. Sci. 20: 367 – 466.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1923). Enumeration of Philippine Plants 3. Bureau of Science, Manila.
  • Merrill, E. D. (1926). Additions to the Philippine Flora, III. Philipp. J. Sci. 30: 389 – 430.
  • Miller, H. S. (1970). The Herbarium of Aylmer Bourke Lambert: notes on its acquisition, dispersal and present whereabouts. Taxon 19: 489 – 553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Millspaugh, C. F. (1906). Praenunciae Bahamensis — II. Contributions to a Flora of the Bahamian Archipelago. Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2 (3): 137 – 184.
  • Miquel, F. A. W. (1856). Flora van Nederlandsch Indie 2. C. G. van der Post, Amsterdam.
  • Moat, J. (2007). Conservation assessment tools extension for ArcView 3.x, version 1.2. GIS Unit, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Available at: http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/gis/cats
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1932). Nomenclatural Notes. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 60: 55 – 60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1945). The known geographic distribution of the members of the Verbenaceae and Avicenniaceae: Supplement 4. Amer. J. Bot. 32: 609 – 612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1948). The known geographic distribution of the members of the Verbenaceae, Avicenniaceae, Stilbaceae, Symphoremaceae, and Eriocaulaceae. Supplement 5. Phytologia 3: 448 – 467.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1950a). Novelties in the Eriocaulaceae and Verbenaceae II. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 77: 389 – 405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1950b). Phytologia 50 (5): 361.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1952a). Notes on new and noteworthy plants XIII. Phytologia 4: 41 – 64.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1952b). The known geographic distribution of the members of the Verbenaceae, Avicenniaceae, Stilbaceae, Symphoremaceae, and Eriocaulaceae. Supplement 9. Phytologia 4: 119 – 124Google Scholar
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1954). The known geographic distribution of the members of the Verbenaceae, Avicenniaceae, Stilbaceae, Symphoremaceae, and Eriocaulaceae. Supplement 12. Phytologia 5: 22 – 30.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1966a). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa I. Phytologia 13: 401 – 445.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1966b). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa III. Phytologia 14 (1): 36 – 63.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1966c). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa IV. Phytologia 14: 99 – 127.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1967a). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa V. Phytologia 14: 140 – 192.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1967b). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa VI. Phytologia 14: 218 – 256.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1967c). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa VII. Phytologia 15: 13 – 40.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1968). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa IX. Phytologia 16: 357 – 388.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1971a). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XI. Phytologia 20: 482 – 499.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1971b). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XII. Phytologia 21: 32 – 55.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1971c). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XIV. Phytologia 21: 149 – 164.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1971d). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XV. Phytologia 21: 208 – 242.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1971e). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XVI. Phytologia 21: 328 – 348.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1971f). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XVII. Phytologia 21: 375 – 388.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1971g). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XVIII. Phytologia 21: 444 – 500.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1971h). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XIX. Phytologia 22: 13 – 28.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1971i). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XX. Phytologia 22: 131 – 136.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1971j). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XXI. Phytologia 22: 190 – 209.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1971k). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XXII. Phytologia 22: 281 – 293.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1974). A fifth summary of the Verbenaceae, Avicenniaceae, Stilbaceae, Dicrastylidaceae, Symphoremaceae, Nyctanthaceae and Eriocaulaceae of the world as to valid taxa, geographic distribution and synonymy. Supplement 4. Phytologia 28: 425
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1976a). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XXIV. Phytologia 33: 375 – 406.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1976b). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XXV. Phytologia 33: 480 – 505.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1977). A fifth summary of the Verbenaceae, Avicenniaceae, Stilbaceae, Dicrastylidaceae, Symphoremaceae, Nyctanthaceae and Eriocaulaceae of the world as to valid taxa, geographic distribution and synonymy. Supplement 7. Phytologia 36: 28 –
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1978a). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XXVII. Phytologia 40: 424 – 436.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1978b). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XXVIII. Phytologia 40: 468 – 476.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1981a). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XXVIII. Phytologia 49: 470 – 482.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1981b). Notes on the genus Geunsia (Verbenaceae). Phytologia 50: 46 – 68.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1981c). Additional notes on the genus Geunsia I. Phytologia 50, 2: 143 – 151.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1982a). Additional notes on the genus Geunsia II. Phytologia 50, 3: 216 – 227.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1982b). Additional notes on the genus Geunsia III. Phytologia 50, 4: 292 – 296.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1982c). Additional notes on the genus Geunsia IV. Phytologia 50, 5: 360 – 378.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1982d). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XXIX. Phytologia 50: 470 – 500.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1982e). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XXX. Phytologia 51: 164 – 168.
  • Moldenke, H. N. (1982f). Additional materials towards a monograph of the genus Callicarpa XXX1. Phytologia 51: 204 – 211.
  • Munir (1982)
  • Munir, J. (1982). A Taxonomic Revision of the genus Callicarpa in Australia. J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 6: 5 – 39.
  • Murray, J. A. (ed.) (1774). Systema vegetabilium: secundum classes ordines genera species cum characteribus et differentiis. Gottingae [Göttingen].
  • Quisumbing, E. & Merrill, E. D. (1928). New Philippine Plants. Philipp. J. Sci. 37: 133 – 214.
  • Quisumbing, E. (1967). Philippine species of plants facing extinction. Araneta J. Agric. 14: 132 – 162.
  • Rafinesque, C. S. (1838). Sylva Telluriana. Printed for the author and publisher, Philadelphia.
  • Ridley, H. N. (1920). Peninsular Siamese Plants. J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 10: 65 – 126.
  • Robinson, C. B. (1908). Alabastra Philippinensis, II. Philipp. J. Sci., C 3: 175 – 218.
  • Rolfe, R. A. (1882). New Formosan Plants. J. Bot. 20: 358 – 359.
  • Rolfe, R. A. (1884). On the Flora of the Philippine Islands, and its probable derivation. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 21: 283 – 379.
  • Roth, A. W. (1821). Novae plantarum species praesertim Indiae orientalis: Ex collectione doct. Benj. Heynii : cum descriptionibus et observationibus /Alberti Guilielmi Roth. Sumptibus H. Vogleri.
  • Roxburgh, W. (1814). Hortus Bengalensis. Reprinted Leiden, Boerhaave Press (1980).
  • Roxburgh, W. (1820). Flora Indica. Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta.
  • Schauer J. C. (1847). Verbenaceae. In: A. de Candolle (ed.), Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 11: 522 – 700. Treuttel & Würtz, Parisis.
  • Teijsmann, J. E. & Binnendijk, S. (1863). Plantae Novae in Horto Bogoriensi Cultae. Natuurk. Tijdschr, Ned.-Indie. 25: 399 – 428.
  • Thiers, B. [2011, continuously updated]. Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/
  • Thunberg, C. P. (1784). Flora Japonica. Bibliopolio J. G. Mülleriano, Lipsiae.
  • Vidal, S. (1885). Phanerogamae Cumingianae Philippinarum: 187. Tipo-litográfico de M. Pérez Hijo, Manila.
  • Vidal, S. (1886). Revision de plantas vasculares Filipinas. Estab. tipo-litográfico de M. Pérez, Manila.
  • Voris, H. K. (2000). Maps of Pleistocene sea levels in Southeast Asia: shorelines, river systems and time durations. J. Biogeogr. 27: 1153 – 1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Wallich, N. (1829). A numerical list of dried plants in the East India Company’s Museum collected under the superintendence of Dr Wallich of the Company’s botanic garden at Calcutta. East India Company, Calcutta, London.
  • Wikramanayake, E., Dinerstein, E., Loucks, C. L., Olson, D. M., Morrison, J., Lamoreux, J., McKnight, M. & Hedao, P. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific. Island Press, Washington.
  • World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) (1997). http://www.protectedplanet.net/sites/Bulusan_Volcano_National_Park
  • World Wildlife Fund (2011a). M. McGinley (topic ed.), Luzon rain forests. In:. C. J. Cleveland (ed.), Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment Washington, D.C. (First published in the Enc
  • World Wildlife Fund (2011b). M. McGinley (topic ed.), Mindoro rain forests. In: C. J. Cleveland (ed.), Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment Washington, D.C. (First published in the En
  • World Wildlife Fund (2011c). M. McGinley (topic ed.), Mindanao montane rain forests. In: C. J. Cleveland (ed.), Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment Washington, D.C. (First published

Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets

  • Aganon Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 161 (1838).
  • Amictonis Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 161 (1838).
  • Burchardia Duhamel, Traité Arb. Arbust. 1: 111 (1755).
  • Callicarpa L., Sp. Pl. 1: 111 (1753)
  • Chang, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 1, 3: 269-312 (1951) rev.
  • Geunsia Blume, Catalogus: 11 (1823).
  • Harley RM, Atkins S, Budantsev AL, Cantino PD, Conn BJ, Grayer R, Harley MM, de Kok RPJ, Krestovskaja T, Morales R, Paton AJ, Ryding O, and Upson T. 2004. Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Sp
  • Illa Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 446 (1763).
  • Johnsonia Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754), nom. rej.
  • Munir, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 6: 5-39 (1982), reg.rev.
  • Porphyra Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 69 (1790).
  • Rodschiedia Dennst., Schlüssel Hortus Malab.: 31 (1818).
  • Sphondylococcum Schauer in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 11: 640 (1847).
  • Spondylococcos Mitch., Diss. Bot. Zool.: 40 (1769).
  • Tomex L., Sp. Pl.: 118 (1753).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
Nina Davies, Gemma Bramley and Don Kirkup, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0