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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Dry Top. & Subtropical to Mongolia.
Lycium

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs, usually armed with thorns, bisexual or dioecious
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or clustered on short shoots, simple, with entire margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers solitary or few from short shoots
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx cup-shaped or tubular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla campanulate, tubular, funnel- or trumpet-shaped
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens included or exserted; anthers dehiscing longitudinally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-celled, with numerous ovules; style slender, stigma 2-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a globose to ovoid berry
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds flattened, reticulate.
Distribution
Perhaps 100 species, mainly in warm temperate areas, mainly in America.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs, sub-shrubs or small trees.
Morphology Stem
Stems with long shoots bearing alternate leaves and short shoots terminating in a spine with fasciculate leaves; nodes usually swollen brachyblasts
Morphology Leaves
Leaves fasciculate on brachyblasts or alternate, membranaceous or succulent. Inflorescences axillary, solitary or occasionally paired, rarely in manyflowered terminal fascicles, epedunculate; flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic, usually hermaphrodite, but a few species functionally dioecious; pedicels filiform, usually erect, rarely deflexed in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular, campanulate or cupulate, with 4–5 equal or unequal calyx lobes which enlarge in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla urceolate, tubular, salverform or infundibular; tube narrow and straight but often constricted above the ovary, with spreading or reflexed imbricate lobes; corolla often detaching after anthesis leaving an annular ring around ovary base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually unequal, often comprising two long, two medium and one short, rarely only 4, exserted or included; filaments joined to corolla tube at same or different levels, straight or flexuose, cylindrical or enlarged at point of fusion, often pubescent towards base, usually glabrous where free; anthers usually all fertile though occasionally sterile especially in functionally female flowers, ovoid, obovoid or sagittate, dorsifixed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-locular, ovules numerous; disc annular, inconspicuous and greenish, or prominent when red or orange; style filiform, glabrous, usually exserted; stigma capitate or discoidal, bilobed (style stunted and stigma absent from functionally male flowers)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a many-seeded berry, rarely drupaceous with two pyrenes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually numerous, occasionally only one in each locule, small; testa crustaceous, reticulate-foveolate.
Note
A large genus of 75 to 100 species, which are found throughout the world. Around 30 to 40 species are probably native to the Old World especially South Africa, but only L. europaeum L. and L. shawii Roem. & Schult. have been recorded from East Africa. However, Venter ( pers. comm.) considers many specimens to have been misidentified and believes that, as discussed below, only L. shawii occurs throughout this region.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General
Shrubs or occasionally small trees, sometimes scandent, sometimes halophytic, densely branched and usually spinescent, with brachyblasts on older branches and spines, glabrous or with an indumentum of multicellular, uniseriate, simple or branched, glandular or eglandular hairs, variously combined in different species
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels slender, filiform but thickened distally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk annular, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary, prominent or inconspicuous Disk annular, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary, prominent or inconspicuous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-locular; ovules usually numerous (elsewhere rarely one) in each locule, on a fleshy, axile placenta, hemicampylotropous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style erect, filiform, straight.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma dilated, obtuse and 2-lobed, exserted to various degrees, undeveloped in functionally male flowers
Note
Most Lycium species are bisexual, but cryptic dioecy occurs in six African species, including L. horridum Thunb. and L. villosum Schinz from the Flora Zambesiaca area. The flowers of the functionally male plants tend to have a narrowly funnel-shaped corolla with 2–3 of the fertile stamens exserted and the undeveloped style and stigma not apparent externally. The flowers of the functionally female plants are tubular, the sterile stamens completely included and the fully developed style and stigma exserted. A cosmopolitan genus of approximately 90 species, widely distributed in warm to temperate regions, the largest number concentrated in South America mainly in Argentina, and also in Southern Africa; 8 species recorded from the Flora Zambesiaca area. Venter, loc. cit. (2000), noted that species of Lycium hybridize readily, but local hybrids are quite easy to detect in the field. L. villosum Schinz and L. horridum are both considered to be of hybrid origin. Chromosome base number: x=12
Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or occasionally small trees, sometimes scandent, sometimes halophytic, densely branched and usually spinescent, with brachyblasts on older branches and spines, glabrous or with an indumentum of multicellular, uniseriate, simple or branched, glandular or eglandular hairs, variously combined in different species.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary and alternate on young stems and spines or fascicled on brachyblasts, subsessile or petiolate, herbaceous to succulent, often covered by a waxy excrescence consisting primarily of calcium oxalate, usually entire. Leaves solitary and alternate on young stems and spines or fascicled on brachyblasts, subsessile or petiolate, herbaceous to succulent, often covered by a waxy excrescence consisting primarily of calcium oxalate, usually entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers mostly solitary among fascicled leaves, seldom paired, elsewhere rarely in a terminal (pseudo-axillary) congested cincinnus, actinomorphic, bisexual, functionally monoecious in a few species; pedicels slender, filiform but thickened distally. Flowers mostly solitary among fascicled leaves, seldom paired, elsewhere rarely in a terminal (pseudo-axillary) congested cincinnus, actinomorphic, bisexual, functionally monoecious in a few species.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx shorter than or ± as long as the corolla; tube campanulate to tubular, (4)5-lobed (elsewhere sometimes truncate), infrequently slightly 2-lipped; lobes equal to slightly unequal, shorter than or as long as the tube, with valvate aestivation; in fruit enlarged and lacerate. Calyx shorter than or ± as long as the corolla; tube campanulate to tubular, (4)5-lobed (elsewhere sometimes truncate), infrequently slightly 2-lipped; lobes equal to slightly unequal, shorter than or as long as the tube, with valvate aestivation; in fruit enlarged and lacerate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla tubular or infundibuliform to campanulate, somewhat restricted above the ovary before expanding, variously coloured, pilose on the inside at the point of filament insertion and below it or sometimes glabrous; limb (4)5-lobed in the Flora Zambesiaca area, spreading or reflexed, the lobes often violet, shorter than the tube (elsewhere sometimes longer), with imbricate aestivation. Corolla tubular or infundibuliform to campanulate, somewhat restricted above the ovary before expanding, variously coloured, pilose on the inside at the point of filament insertion and below it or sometimes glabrous; limb (4)5-lobed in the Flora Zambesiaca area, spreading or reflexed, the lobes often violet, shorter than the tube (elsewhere sometimes longer), with imbricate aestivation
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens (4)5, from unequal to subequal, the filaments inserted from just above the base of corolla tube to just below the corolla mouth, subulate (elsewhere sometimes basally enlarged and glandular), usually pilose at the base, included or exserted; anthers all fertile in bisexual or functionally male flowers, sterile in functionally female flowers, ovate-oblong to ovate in outline, dorsifixed with the thecae separated from each other for the lower third or half, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Stamens (4)5, from unequal to subequal, the filaments inserted from just above the base of corolla tube to just below the corolla mouth, subulate (elsewhere sometimes basally enlarged and glandular), usually pilose at the base, included or exserted; anthers all fertile in bisexual or functionally male flowers, sterile in functionally female flowers, ovate-oblong to ovate in outline, dorsifixed with the thecae separated from each other for the lower third or half, dehiscing by longitudinal slits
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Staminodes
Staminodes absent in the Flora Zambesiaca area. Staminodes absent in the Flora Zambesiaca area
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 2-locular; ovules usually numerous (elsewhere rarely one) in each locule, on a fleshy, axile placenta, hemicampylotropous; style erect, filiform, straight; stigma dilated, obtuse and 2-lobed, exserted to various degrees, undeveloped in functionally male flowers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit red, black or yellow, glossy, usually baccaceous, rarely drupaceous with 2 pyrenes, globose, ovoid or conical, glabrous, sometimes thin-walled. Fruit red, black or yellow, glossy, usually baccaceous, rarely drupaceous with 2 pyrenes, globose, ovoid or conical, glabrous, sometimes thin-walled
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually numerous (to only one) in each locule, discoidal, reniform or ovate in outline; testa leathery or crustaceous, reticulate-foveolate; embryo curved, of uniform in diameter; radicle terete; cotyledons semi-terete; endosperm usually abundant. Seeds usually numerous (to only one) in each locule, discoidal, reniform or ovate in outline; testa leathery or crustaceous, reticulate-foveolate; embryo curved, of uniform in diameter; radicle terete; cotyledons semi-terete; endosperm usually abundant
Cytology
Chromosome base number: x=12.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Assam, Bahamas, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Galápagos, Greece, Gulf States, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Mexico, New South Wales, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Rodrigues, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alberta, Arkansas, Austria, Baleares, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Connecticut, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Krym, Laos, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, New Zealand North, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Territory, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Poland, Primorye, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Saskatchewan, Society Is., South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Sweden, Switzerland, Tasmania, Tennessee, Ukraine, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Lycium L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Milne-Redhead, E. [7150], Kenya 31121.000
Wynd, F.L. [745], Mexico K000063311
Parry, C.C. [723], Mexico K000063312
Smakaune [678], Mexico K000063313

First published in Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A.M. Venter, Taxonomy of Lycium, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Bloemfontein: 1–273 (2000).
  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 88 (1754).
  • Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum: 158 (2001).
  • Lycium L., Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)
  • Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Africa, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Bloemfontein (2000);
  • Collect. Bot. 7: 359–379 (1968);
  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 508 (1852);
  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 88 (1754);
  • Gen. Solanaceae: 158–164 (2001)
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 191 (1753)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0