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  1. Family: Zamiaceae Horan.
    1. Genus: Encephalartos Lehm.
      1. Encephalartos villosus Lem.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Cape Prov. to Eswatini.

    [EDGE]

    Forest, F. et al. 2018. Gymnosperms on the EDGE. Scientific Reports 8: 6053. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-24365-4.

    Conservation
    Encephalartos villosus is rated as Least Concerned (LC) according to IUCN Red List criteria and has received a EDGE score of -8.46, which places it in position 1012 on the EDGE Gymnosperm list. It has a Evolutionary Distinctiveness of 4.22, ranked 931. More information on the EDGE Gymnosperm project here https://www.edgeofexistence.org.
    [FZ]

    Cycadaceae, John Lewis. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Trunk not developed, only the crown above ground.
    Leaves
    Leaves up to 2 m. long, recurved, densely woolly when young, glabrate; leaflets up to 20 x 1.8 cm., linear or narrowly oblong, ± straight, margin with usually 1–5 spines on either side more closely set apically, sometimes entire especially on the distal side; leaflets reducing in size and becoming oblong towards the base, ceasing abruptly or reducing ultimately to simple spines; petiole 20–50 cm. long.
    Cones
    Male cones up to 60 x 10 cm., cylindric, strongly smelling; peduncle up to 20 cm. long; median cone-scales ascending with the head deflexed so that the terminal facet is retained in a plane parallel to the axis of the cone; head rhombic with a rounded dentate adaxial margin, terminal facet rhombic and flat. Female cones up to 45 cm. long, oblong, ovoid, yellowing, pedunculate; median cone-scales straight with the head much inflated; head elliptic with somewhat blunted edges; adaxial margin rounded and medially dentate, terminal facet deflexed.
    Male
    Male cones up to 60 x 10 cm., cylindric, strongly smelling; peduncle up to 20 cm. long; median cone-scales ascending with the head deflexed so that the terminal facet is retained in a plane parallel to the axis of the cone; head rhombic with a rounded dentate adaxial margin, terminal facet rhombic and flat.
    Female
    Female cones up to 45 cm. long, oblong, ovoid, yellowing, pedunculate; median cone-scales straight with the head much inflated; head elliptic with somewhat blunted edges; adaxial margin rounded and medially dentate, terminal facet deflexed.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3 cm. long, ovoid, crimson.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cape Provinces, KwaZulu-Natal, Swaziland

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Encephalartos villosus Lem. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Keith, D.R., Swaziland 19127.000

    Bibliography

    First published in Ill. Hort. 15(Misc.): 69 (1868)

    Accepted by

    • Osborne, R., Calonje, M.A., Hill, K.D., Stanberg, L. & Stevenson, D.W. (2012). The world list of Cycads Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 106: 480-510.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Osborne, R., Calonje, M.A., Hill, K.D., Stanberg, L. & Stevenson, D.W. (2012). The world list of Cycads Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 106: 480-510.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    EDGE Gymnosperms
    EDGE of Existence (Gymnosperms)
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/